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Measurements and Instruments

Schematic of Borden flux tower instrumentation

Schematic of Borden flux tower instrumentation.

Annual carbon uptake by the Borden forest

Annual carbon uptake by the Borden forest

This figure shows the integrated annual carbon uptake, starting over at zero every year; the number on the last day of the year represents the total for that year. Large variability in the annual carbon uptake (NEP = Net Ecosystem Productivity) by the forest is observed at Borden. The forest loses carbon to the atmosphere until leaf-out (typically in May, Day of Year 130), then accumulates carbon through photosynthesis until around day 280, and then loses carbon again in the fall and winter. Years with late springs (1996, 2003) and years with less than normal precipitation (2001-2003) result in significantly reduced annual uptake.

Continuous measurements at Borden (since July 2004; similar instrumentation prior to November 2003)

Table showing the instruments used to provide continuous measurements at Borden since July 2004. It provides the name of the instrument, the height where the instrument is mounted on the tower, and the parameters measured by each instrument.

ParameterInstrumentsLevels (heights)
Horizontal and vertical wind speed; temperatureATI 3D sonic anemometer (SATI K-style)33.4 m
Horizontal wind speed; temperatureATI 2D sonic anemometer (CATI/2)17. 5m
CO2, H2OLicor 6262 (housed at bottom)33.4 m
Wind speed & directionRM Young 0510342.7 m
Temperature & relative humidityRotronic MP-10040.8, 33.5 m
4-component radiation: shortwave & longwaveKipp & Zonen, CNR1 radiometer33.7 m
Shortwave radiationEppley PSP42.0 m
Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)Licor 190SA41.5 m
Reflected PPFDLicor 190SA33.6 m
Transmitted PPFDLicor 191SA1.5m
PressureSetra 2702m
Temperature profileAspirated thermocouples12 levels: 40.7, 33.3, 29.3, 26.0, 22.8, 19.6, 16.4, 13.6, 10.4, 6.4, 3.3, 1.7 m
CO2, H2O, O3, SO2 profilesLicor 6262, Teco 49, Teco 436 levels: 41.5, 33.0, 25.7, 16.4, 5.3, 1.0 m
Soil temperatureThermocouples or thermistors

-5, -10, -20, -50, -100 cm (at 2 sites)

-5 cm (2 sites near soil heat flux plates)

Soil heat fluxCampbell Sci. HFP01-7.5 cm (at 3 sites)
Soil moistureCS 615-2, -5, -10, -20, -50, -100 cm (at 2 sites)
Bole temperatureThermistors9, 5, 2 m in each of the two trees
Leaf wetness profileCS 2372 sensors at each of 6 levels: 33.0, 25.7, 17.7, 10.5, 5.3, 1.3 m
Soil CO2 fluxLI-COR LI-8100 chamber and IRGA1 chamber at surface
PrecipitationBelfort 5915R1.5 m
RainfallHydrological Services TB30.4 m


Archived data from special field projects

The table describing the archived data which is available from the special field projects. It provides the parameter, the method used to collect the data, and the years that the data is available.

Table 2. Archived data from special field projects
Tree species statisticsWalking around the woods and counting1985, 1995, 2006
LAI (leaf area index)Leaf litter collection1986, 1995, 1998, 1999
LAIHemispherical photography1986
LAILiCor LAI-20001995, 1998, 1999
Multi-level horizontal and vertical wind speed and temperatureSonic anemometers1986,1987, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995, 2006, 2009
CO2, H2O 8-level profilesLiCor 6262 (1, 3, 10, 15, 20, 25, 34, 45 m)1993, 1995
Hydrocarbon concentrations & fluxesGas chromatography (GC)1993, 1995
Forest floor radiative environmenttrolley on 30 m transect1995
Soil composition 1998, 2009
Soil physical characteristics 1998, 2009
NH3, NOy FluxesChemiluminescence2005-2008
NO, NO2, HONO profilesChemiluminescence, LOPAP2006
Speciated aerosol fluxesAerosol Mass Spectrometer2006
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)PTR-MS2006, 2009
Stable CO2 & H2O isotope gradientsTunable Diode Laser Trace Gas Analyzers2009
Aerosol fluxesFast Mobility Particle Spectrometers2009
VOC fluxesPTR-MS2009
Snow depth, snow water equivalent, densitySnow cores and ruler using 5 pt survey2005-2010


Forest species composition

Image showing the tree species composition of the Borden Forest. The tree species are listed, with the stem density per hectare, in 2006, 1995 and 1985. Some species, such as red maple and eastern white pine have increased since 1985, while other species, such as large toothed aspen, have decreased.

Table 3. Forest species composition
 (Stems ha-1)(%)(%)(%)
Red maple (Acer rubrum L)156352.240.831.4
Eastern white pine (Pinus strobes L.)40413.521.92.5

Large-tooth aspen

( Populus grandidentata Michx.)

White ash (Fraxinus Americana L.)2117.19.62.5
American beech (Fagus Grandifolia)1685.61.6n/a
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)           1003.3n/an/a

Trembling aspen

(Populus tremuloides Michx.)

Red ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)592.0n/an/a
Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.)561.9n/an/a
Red pine (Pinus resinosa)       561.9n/an/a
American elm(Ulmus americana L)           331.11n/an/a
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)           260.93.6n/a
Yellow birch     (Betula alleghaniensis)150.5n/an/a
Choke cherry   (Prunus virginiana)           40.1n/an/a
Total Stem Density
Living stems m-20.3 0.34n/a
Living stems ha-12996 34003556
Live & dead Stems ha-14137 n/an/a
Leaf Area Index4.6 4.1n/a

* Lee et al. 1999
** Neumann, Hartog & Shaw, 1989

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