Dr. George Boer
Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis
Senior Research Scientist
Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis
- B.Sc. University of British Columbia, 1963. Faculty of Science. Honours Mathematics and Physics.
- M.A., University of Toronto, 1965. Department of Physics (Meteorology).
- Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1970. Department of Meteorology.
- All aspects of climate modelling and analysis including climate prediction from seasons to centuries.
Publications (since 1995)
- Arora, V.K. and G.J.Boer, 2014: Terrestrial ecosystems response to future changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Biogeosciences, 11, 4157–4171. doi:10.5194/bg-11-4157-2014
- Arora, Vivek K., G.J. Boer and Coauthors, 2013: Carbon–Concentration and Carbon–Climate Feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth System Models. J. Clim., 26, 5289–5314. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00494.1
- Boer, G. J., V. K. Arora, 2013: Feedbacks in Emission-Driven and Concentration-Driven Global Carbon Budgets. J. Climate, 26, 3326–3341. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00365.1
- Boer, G.J., Kharin, V.V., G. and W. J. Merryfield, 2013: Decadal predictability and forecast skill. Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-013-1705-0
- Goddard, L., A. Kumar, A. Solomon, D. Smith, G. Boer et al., 2013: A verification framework for interannual-to-decadal prediction experiments. Clim. Dyn., 40, 245–272. DOI 10.1007/s00382-012-1481-2
- Meehl, G., Goddard, L., G.J.Boer et al.,2013: Decadal prediction: an update from the trenches. Bull. Amer. Meterol. Soc. e-View doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00241.1
- Merryfield, W. J., W.-S. Lee, G. J. Boer, et al., 2013: The Canadian Seasonal to Interannual Prediction system. Part I. Models and Initialization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 2910–2945. doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00216.1
- Boer, G.J., 2012: Long time-scale teleconnection patterns in the northern Atlantic and Pacific. J. Clim. 25, 414-422. doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4107.1
- Kharin, V.V., G. J. Boer, W. J. Merryfield, J. F. Scinocca and W.-S. Lee, 2012: Statistical adjustment of decadal predictions in a changing climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19705, doi:10.1029/2012GL052647, 2012
- Smith, D.M., A. Scaife, G.J. Boer et al., 2012: Real-time multi-model decadal climate predictions. Accepted for publication in Clim. Dyn.. doi 10.1007/s00382-012-1600-0
- Yu, B. F.W. Zwiers, G.J. Boer, and M.F. Ting, 2012: Structure and variances of equatorial zonal circulation in a multimodel ensemble. Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-012-1372-6.
- Arora, V.K., J. F. Scinocca, G. J. Boer, J. R. Christian, K. L. Denman, G. M. Flato, V. V. Kharin, W. G. Lee, and W. J. Merryfield, 2011: Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L05805, doi:10.1029/2010GL046270.
- Boer, G.J., 2011: The ratio of land to ocean temperature change under global warming, Clim. Dyn, 37, 2253–2270. DOI 10.1007/s00382-011-1112-3
- Fyfe, J.C., W. J. Merryfield, V. Kharin, G.J. Boer, W.-S. Lee, and K. von Salzen, 2011: Prospects for predicting decadal trends in global mean surface temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett, . 38, L22801, doi:10.1029/2011GL049508
- Yu B., G.J. Boer, and F. Zwiers, 2011: Surface heat flux feedback and SST variability. Trans. Atmos. Sci. 34 (1): 1-7.
- Arora, V.K. and G.J. Boer, 2010: Uncertainties in the 20th century carbon budget associated with land use change. Global Change Biology, 16, 3327–3348.
- Boer, G.J., 2011: Decadal potential predictability of twenty-first century climate. Clim. Dyn., 36, 1119-1133. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0747-9
- Merryfield, W. J., W.-S. Lee, G. J. Boer, V. V. Kharin, B. Pal, J. F. Scinocca and G. M. Flato, 2010: The first Coupled Historical Forecasting Project (CHFP1). Atmosphere-Ocean, 48(4), 263-283.
- Christian, J., V. Arora, G.J. Boer et al., 2010: The global carbon cycle in the CCCma earth system model: the preindustrial control simulation. JGR-Biogeosciences. doi:10.1029/2008JG000920
- Yu, B., G. J. Boer, F. W. Zwiers and W. J. Merryfield, 2010: Covariability of SST and surface heat fluxes in reanalyses and CMIP3 climate models. Clim. Dyn., 36, 589-605.
- Boer, G.J. and V. Arora, 2010: Geographic aspects of temperature and concentration feedbacks in the carbon cycle. J Clim., 23, 775-784.
- Arora, V. K., G. J. Boer, J. R. Christian, C. L. Curry, K. L. Denman, K. Zahariev, G. M. Flato, J. F. Scinocca, W. J. Merryfield, W. G. Lee, 2009: The effect of terrestrial photosynthesis down-regulation on the 20th century carbon budget simulated with the CCCma Earth System Model, J. Clim., 22, 6066-6088.
- Boer, G.J., 2009: Climate trends in seasonal forecasts. Atmos-Ocean, 47, 123-138.
- Boer, G.J., 2009: Changes in interannual variability and decadal potential predictability under global warming. J. of Clim., 22, 3098-3109.
- Kharin, V. V., Q. Teng, F.W. Zwiers, G.J. Boer, J. Derome, J.-S. Fontecilla, 2009: Skill assessment of seasonal hindcasts from the Canadian Historical Forecast Project. Atmosphere-Ocean, 47, 204-223.
- Meehl, G.A. L. Goddard, J. Murphy, R.J. Stouffer, G. Boer, G. Danabasoglu, K. Dixon, M.A. Giorgetta, A. Greene, E. Hawkins, G. Hegerl, D. Karoly, N. Keenlyside, M. Kimoto, B. Kirtman, A. Navarra, R. Pulwarty, D. Smith, D. Stammer, and T. Stockdale, 2009: Decadal prediction: Can it be skillful? Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 90, 1467-1485.
- Yu, B., G.J.Boer, F.Zwiers, W. Merryfield, 2009: Covariability of SST and surface heat fluxes in reanalyses and CMIP3 climate models. Climate Dynamics. DOI 10.1007/s00382-009-0669-6
- Boer, G. J., and V. Arora, 2009: Temperature and concentration feedbacks in the carbon cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02704.
- Boer, G. J., and S. J. Lambert, 2008: Multi-model decadal potential predictability of precipitation and temperature, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05706.
- Boer, G.J. and K. Hamilton, 2008: QBO influence on extratropical predictive skill. Climate Dynamics, 31, 987-1000.
- Boer, G.J. and S.J.Lambert, 2008: The energy cycle in atmospheric models. Climate Dynamics, 30, 371-390.
- Wu, A., W. W. Hsieh, G. J. Boer, and F. W. Zwiers, 2007: Changes in the Arctic Oscillation under increased atmospheric greenhouse gases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12701.
- Boer, G.J., M. Stowasser and K. Hamilton, 2007: Inferring climate sensitivity from volcanic events. Climate Dynamics, 28, 481-502
- Arora, V.K., and G.J. Boer, 2006: The temporal variability of soil moisture and surface hydrological quantities in a climate model. J. Clim., 19, 5875-5888.
- Allen, M.R., N. Gillett, J. Kettleborough, G.Hegerl, R. Schnur, P. Stott, G. Boer, C. Covey, T. Delworth, G.Jones, J. Mitchell, T. Barnett, 2006: Quantifying anthropogenic influence on recent near-surface temperature change. Surveys of Geophysics, 27, 491-544.
- Arora, V. and G.J. Boer, 2006: Simulating competition and coexistence between plant functional types in a dynamic vegetation model. Earth Interactions, 10, #10, 30pp.
- Stowasser, M., K. Hamilton and G.J. Boer, 2006: Local and global climate feedbacks in models with differing climate sensitivities. J. Clim.,19, 193-209.
- Yu, B. and G.J. Boer, 2006: The variance of sea surface temperature and projected changes with global warming. Climate Dynamics, 26, 801-821.
- Wu, A., W.Hsieh, A. Shabar, G.J.Boer and F. Zwiers, 2005: The nonlinear association between the Arctic Oscillation and North American winter climate. Climate Dynamics, 26, 865-879.
- Arora, V. and G.J. Boer, 2006: Achieving coexistence: Comment on "Modelling rainforest diversity: The role of competition" by Bampfylde et al. (2005). Ecological Modelling, 192, 322-324.
- Arora, V. and G.J. Boer, 2005: Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. J. Geophys. Res., 110, G02008, doi:10.1029/2005JG000042, 20pp.
- Arora, V. and G.J. Boer, 2005: A competition-colonization based dynamic vegetation model. Submitted to Global Change Biology.
- Arora, V. and G.J. Boer (2005) A parameterization of leaf phenology for the terrestrial ecosystem component of climate models, Global Change Biology, 11(1), 39-59.
- Boer, G.J., 2005: An evolving seasonal forecast system using Bayes' theorem. Atmos-Ocean, 43, 129-143.
- Boer, G.J., K.Hamilton and W. Zhu, 2005: Climate sensitivity and climate change under strong forcing. Climate Dynamics, 24, 685-700.
- Merryfield, W. J. and G. J. Boer, 2005: Variability of upper Pacific Ocean overturning in a coupled climate model. J. Climate, 18, 666-683.
- Stowasser, M., K. Hamilton and G.J. Boer, 2005: Local and global climate feedbacks in models with differing climate sensitivities. Accepted for publication in J. Clim.
- Boer, G.J., 2004: Long timescale potential predictability in an ensemble of coupled climate models. Climate Dynamics, 23, 29-44.
- Boer, G.J., B. Yu, S.-J. Kim and G. Flato, 2004: Is there observational support for an El Nino-like pattern of future global warming? Geophys. Res. Lett., 31,L06201.
- Derome, J., G.J. Boer, R. Greatbatch and A. Weaver, 2004: A Workshop on Climate Variability. Bull. Can. Met. Ocean. Soc., 32, 115-119.
- Yu, B. and G.J. Boer, 2004: The role of the western Pacific in Pacific Decadal Variability. Geophys.Res.Let., 31, L02204.
- Arora, V.K. and G.J. Boer (2003) A representation of variable root distribution in dynamic vegetation models, Earth Interactions, Vol. 7, Paper 6, 19 pp.
- Boer, G.J., 2003: Predictability as a function of scale. Atmosphere-Ocean, 41, 203-215.
- Boer, G.J., and B. Yu, 2003: Climate sensitivity and climate state. Climate Dynamics, 21, 167-176.
- Boer, G.J., and B. Yu, 2003: Dynamical aspects of climate sensitivity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1135.
- Boer, G.J., and B. Yu, 2003: Climate sensitivity and climate response. Climate Dynamics, 20, 415-429.
- Kim. S.-J., G. Flato, G.J. Boer, 2003: A coupled climate model simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum, Part 2: approach to equilibrium. Climate Dynamics, 20, 635-661.
- Miller, A. J. M. A. Alexander, G.J. Boer, et al., 2003: Potential feedbacks between Pacific Ocean ecosystems and interdecadal climate variations. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 84, 617-633.
- Arora, V.K., and Boer, G.J. (2002) A GCM-based assessment of simulated global moisture budget and the role of land-surface moisture reservoirs in processing precipitation, Climate Dynamics, 20, 13-29.
- Kim, S-J, G. Flato, G.J. Boer, N. McFarlane, 2002: A coupled climate model simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum: Part 1, Transient Response. Climate Dynamics, 19, 515-537.
- Yu, B., and G.J. Boer, 2002: The roles of radiation and dynamical processes in the El Nino-like response to global warming. Climate Dynamics, 19, 539-553.
- Gregory, J.M., J. Church, G.J. Boer, K. Dixon, G.Flato, D.Jackett, J. Lowe, S. O'Farrel and R. Stouffer, 2001: Comparison of results from several AOGCMs for global and regional sea-level change 1900-2100. Climate Dynamics, 18, 225-240.
- Derome, J., G. Brunet, A. Plante, N. Gagnon, G.J. Boer et al. 2001: Seasonal predictions based on two dynamical models. Atmosphere-Ocean, 39, 485-501.
- Holzer, M. and G.J. Boer, 2001: Simulated changes in atmospheric transport climate. J. of Climate, 14, 4398-4420.
- Boer, G.J., S. Fourest and B. Yu, 2001: The signature of the annular modes in the moisture budget. J. of Climate, 14, 3655-3665.
- Arora, V.K., and Boer, G.J., 2001: Effects of simulated climate change on the hydrology of major river basins, J. Geophy. Res., 106, 3335-3348.
- Boer, G.J. and S.J. Lambert, 2001: Second order space-time climate difference statistics. Clim. Dyn., 17, 213-218.
- Lambert, S.J. and G.J. Boer, 2001: CMIP1 evaluation and intercomparison of coupled climate models. Clim. Dyn., 17, 83-106
- Flato, G.M. and G.J. Boer, 2001: Warming asymmetry in climate change simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28:195-198.
- Boer, G.J., G. Flato, M.C. Reader, and D. Ramsden, 2000: A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: experimental design and comparison with the instrumental record for the 20th century. Clim. Dyn., 16, 405-425.
- Boer, G.J., G. Flato, and D. Ramsden, 2000: A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: projected climate for the 21th century. Clim. Dyn., 16, 427-450.
- Boer, G.J., 2000: A study of atmosphere-ocean predictability on long timescales. Clim. Dyn., 16, 469-477.
- Covey, C., A. Abe-Ouchi, G.J. Boer et al., 2000: The seasonal cycle of coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. Clim. Dyn., 16, 775-787.
- Flato, G.M., G.J. Boer, W. Lee, N. McFarlane, D. Ramsden, and A.Weaver, 2000: The CCCma global coupled model and its climate. Clim. Dyn., 16, 451-467.
- Meehl, G.A., G. J. Boer, C. Covey, M. Latif and R. J. Stouffer. 2000: The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) Workshop. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 81, 313-318.
- Li, J. and G.J. Boer, 2000: A model for the size distribution of stratospheric aerosols. J. Atmos. Sci.,57,442-451
- Fyfe, J.C., G.J. Boer and G. Flato, 1999: The Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations and their projected changes under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1601-1604.
- Arora, V. and G.J. Boer, 1999: A variable velocity flow routing algorithm for GCMs. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30965-30979.
- Laprise, R.L, D. Caya, M. Giguere, G. Bergeron, H. Cote, J-P Blanchet, G.J. Boer and N. McFarlane, 1998: Climate and climate change in Western Canada as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model. Atmos.-Ocean, 36, 119-167.
- Reader, C. and G.J. Boer, 1998: The modification of greenhouse gas warming by the direct effect of sulphate aerosols. Clim. Dyn., 14, 593-607.
- Meehl, G.A., G.J. Boer, C. Covey, M. Latif, and R.J. Stouffer, 1997: Intercomparison makes for a better climate model. EOS, 78, 445-446.
- F. D'Andrea, F., S. Tibaldi, M. Blackburn, G. Boer, et al., 1998: Northern Hemisphere atmospheric blocking as simulated by 15 atmospheric general circulation models in the period 1979-1988. Clim. Dyn., 14, 385-407.
- Boer, G.J. and B. Denis, 1996: Numerical convergence of the dynamics of a GCM. Clim. Dyn., 13, 359-374.
- Boer, G. J., 1996: Some dynamical consequences of greenhouse gas warming. Atmosphere-Ocean, 33, 731-751.
- Boer, G.J., 1995: Analyzed and forecast large-scale tropical divergent flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 3539-3553.
Books, Chapters, Monographs (since 1995)
- Cubasch, U., G.Meehl, G.J. Boer, et al. 2001: Projections of Future Climate Change. Chapter 9, in Climate Change 2001: The scientific Basis. Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 881 pp.
- Boer, G.J., 2000: Analysis and verification of model climate. Chapter 3, Numerical modelling of the Global Atmosphere, NATO Science Series.Kluwer Academic Publishers, 59-82.
- Boer, G.J., 2000: Climate model intercomparison. Chapter 19, Numerical modelling of the Global Atmosphere, NATO Science Series. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 443-464.
- Boer, G.J., 2000: Simulating future climate. Chapter 21 in Numerical modelling of the Global Atmosphere, NATO Science Series. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 489-504.
- Boer, G.J., 1996: Dynamic Climatology. Revised and expanded article for the Canadian Encyclopedia. Also published electronically as the Canadian Encyclopedia Plus. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto.
- Gates, W.L., G.J. Boer, et al., 1996: Climate Models - Evaluation, Chapter 5, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 572 pp.
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