Risk Evaluation Determining Whether Environmental Emergency Planning is Required Under the Environmental Emergency Regulations set under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999)

This report is a consolidation of two substances listed under Schedule 1 of the Environmental Emergency Regulations set under CEPA 1999. The substances inherent hazardous properties are virtually the same.

Nickel(II) Sulphate (CAS #: 7786-81-4) (Nickel(II) Sulfate) AND Nickel(II) Sulphate, Hexahydrate (CAS #: 10101-97-0) (Nickel(II) Sulfate, Hexahydrate) (Oxidic, Sulphidic, and Soluble Inorganic Nickel Compounds) (CEPA, 1999 Schedule 1, #42)


Summary of Risk Evaluation Analysis

The Risk Evaluation Framework (REF), developed by Environment Canada, is applied to chemical substances in order to determine whether or not an environmental emergency (E2) plan should be required. For those substances that are evaluated as requiring an E2 plan, the next step is to determine a threshold quantity for the total quantity of the substance and the maximum storage container size on site. Within the REF, three categories are used to evaluate chemicals and assign threshold quantities. Shown below are the details within the three categories for nickel sulphate and nickel sulphate, hexahydrate:

Return to Top of Page
Top of Page

1. Environment Hazard

(Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Aquatic Toxicity Analysis)

Return to Top of Page
Top of Page

2. Human Hazard

(Inhalation Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Analysis)

Return to Top of Page
Top of Page

3. Physical Hazard

(Flammability and Combustibility Analysis)

Flammability and Combustibility Analysis Table
  Value Vapour Cloud Explosion (Yes/No) Combustible (Yes/No) References
Boiling point (°C) Decomposes at 840 No No (ATSDR, 2003; Genium 2004)
Flash Point (°C) Non-flammable (ATSDR, 2003; HSDB, 2004)
Return to Top of Page
Top of Page

Threshold

The data from the above mentioned categories were used to determine the various environmental/human thresholds. The threshold quantities relate to: carcinogenicity, aquatic toxicity, inhalation toxicity, vapour cloud explosion, combustibility, and reactivity.

The threshold quantity for carcinogenicity is defaulted to 0.22 tonnes, if it meets the following criteria:

1) have an IARC rating of 1, 2A or 2B, or have a US EPA rating of A, B1, or B2;

2) be persistent in any media for greater than 5 years.

Threshold quantities assigned as a result of aquatic toxicity are based on the following table:

Threshold Quantities Assigned as a Result of Aquatic Toxicity
Criteria Extremely Toxic Highly Toxic Moderately Toxic Slightly Toxic
Persistence (water) ≥ 6 months ≥ 2 months to < 6 months N/A N/A
Bioaccumulation BCF ≥ 5000 or Log Kow ≥ 5 BCF ≥ 500 to < 5000 or Log Kow ≥ 4 to < 5 (unless BCF < 500) N/A N/A
Acute Aquatic Toxicity (96 hrs LC50 – mg/L) ≤ 0.1 > 0.1 to ≤ 1 > 1 to ≤ 10 > 10 to ≤ 100
Threshold Quantity Tonnes (lbs) 0.22 (500 lbs) 1.13 (2 500 lbs) 4.50 (10 000 lbs) 9.10 (20 000 lbs)

A substance is a candidate for a vapour cloud explosion if its flash point is < 23°C and its boiling point is < 35°C . A substance is considered combustible if its flash point is < 23°C or its boiling point is < 35°C . In accordance with the precautionary principle, the category with the lowest threshold will be used. For further explanation, please refer to the Implementation Guidelines for Part 8 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 – Environmental Emergency Plans. (http://www.ec.gc.ca/ee-ue/)

Return to Top of Page
Top of Page

Conclusion

For nickel sulphate and nickel sulphate, hexahydrate # 42, the E2 hazard threshold was triggered by:

1) Aquatic toxicity at 0.22 tonnes;

2) Carcinogenicity at 0.22 tonnes.

Therefore, nickel sulphate and nickel sulphate, hexahydrate # 42 are recommended for addition to Schedule 1 of the Environmental Emergency Regulations under Part 3 with a threshold quantity of 0.22 tonnes.

References

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substance of Disease Registry). Toxicological Profile for Nickel CAS # 7440-02-0. Centre for Disease Control. PB/98/101199/AS. 2003. World Wide Web accessed October 2004.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=245&tid=44

Bingham, E., B. Cohrssen, and C. Powell (editors). Patty's Toxicology. 5th Edition. Wiley-Interscience Publication. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, NY. 2001. Volume 3. p. 252.

Blaylock B.G. and M.L. Frank. “A Comparison of the Toxicity of Nickel to the Developing Eggs and Larvae of Carp (Cyprinus carpio).” 1979. Bull. Environm. Contam. Toxicol. 21(4/5): 604-611.

CHEMInfo. Chemical Profiles for Nickel sulphate.Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. 1989. World Wide Web accessed October 2004.
http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html

Genium. “Material Safety Data Sheet – Nickel Sulfate Liquid.” Release 58. CD-ROM. Genium Publishing Corp. Schenectady, NY. 2004.

HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank). Nickel Sulphate. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2004. World Wide Web accessed October 2004.
http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB

Mackay, D., E. Webster, D. Woodfine, T.M. Cahill, P. Doyle, Y. Couillard, and D. Gutzman. “Contributed Articles Towards Consistent Evaluation of the Persistence of Organic, Inorganic and Metallic Substances.” 2003. ASP. Canadian Environmental Modelling Centre and Environment Canada. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 9: 1445-1474. ISSN: 1080-7039.

Pohanish, R.P. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. 4th Edition. Noyes Publications. Norwich, NY. 2002. Volume 2. pp. 1680-1682.

Cat. No.: En14-55/21-2011E-PDF

ISBN: 978-1-100-19710-4

For information regarding reproduction rights, please contact Public Works and Government Services Canada at 613-996-6886 or at droitdauteur.copyright@tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the Environment, 2011

Aussi disponible en français