Facility Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program - Overview of Reported 2015 Emissions

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Highlights

  • For the 2015 calendar year, 563 facilities reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada, totalling 264 megatonnesFootnote 1 (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.), unchanged from the 2014 total.
  • The reported emissions are, for the most part, evenly distributed across three sectors: (i) Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (33%), (ii) Utilities (32%), and (iii) Manufacturing (29%). Among all facilities, those engaged in electricity generation and oil/gas extraction account for 62% of the total.
  • Reported GHG emissions increased by 3% (8 Mt) in the last five years, consistent with the upward trend in emissions reported by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Emissions from non-conventional oil extraction facilities located in Alberta increased by 15 Mt, but were partly offset by the 8 Mt decrease in emissions from Ontario-based power plants resulting largely from the closure of coal-fired electric power generation facilities.
  • Since 2005, total emissions from all reporting facilities decreased by 5% (14 Mt). The Utilities and Manufacturing sectors experienced the largest declines (38 Mt and 16 Mt, respectively), while reported emissions increased by 40 Mt from facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, largely in Alberta (36 Mt).
  • The GHG emissions data collected from facilities represent just over one-third (37%) of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2015 (722 Mt) and 58% of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions as reported in Canada’s National Inventory Report.Footnote 2
  • Environment and Climate Change Canada is considering expanding the reporting requirements under the GHGRP starting in 2017 in order to be able to directly use this data in the National GHG Inventory, thus better reflecting emission changes occurring at individual facilities and improving the consistency and comparability of GHG data.

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1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program

Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program (GHGRP) has completed the collection of GHG emissions information from Canadian facilities for the 2015 calendar year. Any facility with annual GHG emissions of 50 kt of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) or higherFootnote 3 is required to report to the program.

The Government of Canada established the GHGRP in March 2004 under the authority of section 46 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) to collect GHG emissions information annually from the largest emitting Canadian facilities. To date, facility-reported GHG information has been collected and published through Environment and Climate Change Canada’s GHGRP for the period 2004 to 2015. This program is part of Canada’s ongoing effort to develop, in collaboration with Canadian provinces and territories, a harmonized and efficient mandatory GHG reporting system that minimizes duplication and reporting burden for industry and governments. Key objectives of the program are to provide Canadians with consistent information on GHG emissions, confirm industrial emission estimates presented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and support regulatory initiatives. The data collected are also shared with provinces and territories. The data used in this overview report are current as of October 12, 2016. Subsequent company updates will be included in future data releases.

The federal reporting requirements for 2016 data, scheduled to be submitted by facilities to Environment and Climate Change Canada by June 1, 2017, are set out in the Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2016Footnote 4 published in the Canada Gazette on December 10, 2016.

Environment and Climate Change Canada is considering expanding the reporting requirements under the GHGRP in order to enable the direct use of the reported data in Canada’s National GHG Inventory, increase the consistency and comparability of GHG data across jurisdictions, and obtain a more comprehensive picture of Canadian facility emissions. Proposed changes include:

  • Lowering the reporting threshold from 50 to 10 kt CO2 eq. per year.
  • Reporting of additional data (e.g., more detailed emissions, quantities of fuels or feedstocks consumed, etc.) and applying specific quantification methods to determine emissions; these new requirements will be gradually phased in by sectors.

ECCC is consulting with stakeholders on the proposed changesFootnote 5 starting in early 2017, in advance of issuing requirements for 2017.

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2. Reported 2015 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Note: Unless explicitly stated otherwise, all emissions data presented in this report are expressed in CO2 eq. units.

For the purposes of the GHGRP, a facility is defined as a contiguous facility, pipeline transportation system, or offshore installation. A contiguous facility is defined as all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items that are located on a single site or on contiguous or adjacent sites that are owned or operated by the same person and that function as a single integrated site; it includes wastewater collection systems that discharge treated or untreated wastewater into surface waters.

A total of 563 facilities reported their GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada for the 2015 calendar year, collectively emitting a total of 264 Mt of GHGs (Figure 1). Of these facilities, 316 reported GHG emission levels greater than 100 kt, accounting for 95% (251 Mt) of the total reported emissions, and 57 emitted GHGs in quantities higher than 1 Mt, accounting for 63% (166 Mt) of the total reported emissions (Figure 2). Twenty-three facilities reported their GHG emissions for the first time: they fall within various sectors, such as conventional oil and gas extraction (6 facilities), non-conventional oil extraction (5 facilities), and waste treatment and disposal (3 facilities). The combined emissions from these new reporters are close to 4 Mt. Facilities with emissions falling below the reporting threshold of 50 kt per year can voluntarily report their GHG emissions; 81 facilities did so this year, representing 0.7% (2 Mt). Reported emissions from voluntary reporters are included in this report and in the data set published by Environment and Climate Change Canada.

Figure 1: 2015 Facility GHG Emissions Reported to Environment and Climate Change CanadaFigure 1 Note a, Figure 1 Note b
Figure 1
Long Description

Figure 1 is a map of facilities that reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada in 2015. The map excludes pipeline transportation systems. As shown, the distribution of facilities is uneven across the country, reflecting the concentration of large industrial facilities in certain provinces relative to others. Facilities are highly aggregated in Alberta and in the Windsor (Ontario) to Quebec City (Quebec) corridor. The map indicates a lower number of facilities located in British Colombia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Maritime provinces.

2015 Facility GHG Emissions Reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada (kt CO2 eq)
Province / TerritoryBelow < 5050 to < 100100 to < 500500 to < 1,0001,000 to < 2,000Over > 2,000Total
Newfoundland and Labrador0204208
Prince Edward Island0100001
Nova Scotia02322110
New Brunswick04320211
Quebec182226103079
Ontario2643471183138
Manitoba25410012
Saskatchewan3111863344
Alberta215164171018181
British Columbia11233162073
Northwest Territories0230005
Nunavut0010001
Total81166200593027563

Notes:

Figure 2: Contribution of Facilities in Various Emission Ranges to Total Reported Emissions (2015)
Figure 2
Long Description

Figure 2 is a column and scatter chart showing the number of facilities falling within various emissions ranges and their combined contribution to the total emissions reported to the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program in 2015. While 166 facilities reported 50 to 100 kilotonnes of GHG emissions, their combined total accounted for only 4% of total reported emissions. There were 57 facilities with annual GHG emissions greater than 1 megatonne, accounting for 63% of the total reported emissions.

Contribution of Facilities in Various Emission Ranges to Total Reported Emissions (2015)
Reported Emissions (kt CO2 eq)Below < 5050 to < 100100 to < 250250 to < 1,000Over 1,000Total
Number of Facilities8116614011957563
Percentage of Total Emissions (264 MT)1%4%8%24%63%100%

Note: Facilities in the range “below < 50 kt” voluntarily reported their emissions.

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2.1 Calculation Methods

A facility may choose among a number of available methods to calculate its GHG emissions. The methods selected by reporting facilities must be consistent with the guidelines developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the preparation of national GHG inventories. Reporting facilities must indicate the types of methods used to determine the quantities of emissions reported. Such methods may include monitoring or direct measurement (MDM), mass balance (MB), emission factors (EF), and/or engineering estimates (EE).

Overall, methods incorporating the use of EFs were the approach preferred by most facilities (Figure 3). An EF is a measure that indicates the rate at which a GHG is released into the atmosphere due to a given activity, such as burning a specific fuel type or producing a specific industrial product. The EFs used may be general or technology-specific. Many facilities used more than one calculation method to determine their emissions.

Figure 3: Types of Methods Used by Facilities
Figure 3
Long Description

Figure 3 is a pie chart showing the types of calculation methods and their percent usage by facilities to estimate their GHG emissions. The most common method (at 63%) was that using emissions factors, followed by mass balance and engineering estimates, both at 14%. The remaining method is monitoring or direct measurements, used 9% of the time.

Types of Methods Used by Facilities
MethodPercentage of Use
Emission Factors63%
Mass Balance14%
Engineering Estimates14%
Monitoring / Direct Measurement9%
Total100%

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2.2 Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials

GHGs are not equal in their effect on the atmosphere. Each GHG has a unique average atmospheric lifetime and heat-trapping potential. GHG emissions are often calculated and reported in terms of how much CO2 would be required to produce a similar warming effect over a given time horizon. This is called the CO2 eq. value and is calculated by multiplying the amount of the gas by its associated global warming potential (GWP) (Table 1). Environment and Climate Change Canada uses the GWP values adopted by the UNFCCC, a complete list of which can be found in the Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2015.Footnote 6 The GWP values used by the GHGRP are consistent with those used in Canada’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

Table 1: Global Warming Potential Values for the Main Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse Gas100-year GWPsTable 1 Note a
Carbon dioxide (CO2)1
Methane (CH4)25
Nitrous oxide N2O298
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)22,800
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 13 speciesRanges from 92 to 14,800
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 7 speciesRanges from 7,390 to 12,200

Note:

  • Table 1 Note a GWPs were updated in 2013 and applied to all years.

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2.3 Reported GHG Emissions by Gas and by Source

CO2 represented the majority of the total reported emissions (94%) in 2015, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions contributed 4% and 1%, respectively (Figure 4). Facilities are also required to report emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) stemming from industrial processes or industrial product use. The combined emissions of these gases accounted for the remaining 1%.

Figure 4: Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Gas (264 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 4
Long Description

Figure 4 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the reported 2015 GHG emissions by gas. Facilities reported 264 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2015. Carbon dioxide (CO2) represented the majority of the total emissions at 94%, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions each contributed an additional 4% and 1% respectively. The combined emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) accounted for the remaining 1%.

Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Gas (264 Mt CO2 eq)
GasPercentage of Total Emissions (264 Mt)
CO294%
CH44%
N2O1%
HFCs, PFCs, and SF61%
Total100%

When reporting to the GHGRP, facilities are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O according to the following eight source categories:Footnote 7 stationary fuel combustion, industrial processes, venting, flaring, fugitive sources, on-site transportation, waste and wastewater. Stationary fuel combustion is the largest source of reported emissions, representing 77% of the total (Figure 5). This source includes emissions resulting from the burning of fuels for the purpose of producing energy (e.g., to generate electricity, heat or steam), but does not include sources like combustion engines in vehicles. Any waste material burned or incinerated at a facility to produce energy is also included in stationary combustion. Industrial process emissions, the second-largest source of reported emissions at 13%, refer to emissions stemming from specific industrial processes involving chemical or physical reactions other than combustion. Such reactions occur, for example, in the processes of mineral production (e.g., lime, cement), metal production (e.g., iron, steel, aluminium) and chemical production (e.g., nitric acid and ammonia production).

Figure 5: Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Source (CO2, CH4 and N2O Included)
Figure 5
Long Description

Figure 5 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2015 GHG emissions by emission source category for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Facilities reported 263 megatonnes of total CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in 2015. Stationary fuel combustion was the largest source of emissions at 77%. Industrial processes accounted for 13%, venting accounted for 3%, fugitive, flaring, waste, and on-site transportation each accounted for 2%, and wastewater accounted for 0.02%.

Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Source
Emission Source CategoryPercentage of CO2, CH4 and N2O Emissions (263 Mt)
Stationary Fuel Combustion77%
Industrial Processes13%
Venting3%
Flaring2%
Fugitive Sources2%
On-site Transportation2%
Waste2%
Wastewater0.2%
Total100%

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

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2.4 Reported GHG Emissions by Province/Territory

Facilities in the province of Alberta accounted for the largest share of reported emissions, with approximately 53% of the total, followed by facilities in Ontario (16%), Saskatchewan (9%) and Quebec (7%) (Table 2). The number of facilities, the quantity and type of fuel consumed, and the predominant industry largely explain this ranking.

Table 2: Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Province/Territory
Province/TerritoryTable 2 Note aNumber of FacilitiesTotal Emissions (kt CO2 eq)Percentage of Total Emissions
Newfoundland and Labrador84,9252%
Prince Edward Island1500.02%
Nova Scotia107,6103%
New Brunswick117,2593%
Quebec7919,7947%
Ontario13841,93416%
Manitoba122,0951%
Saskatchewan4424,7779%
Alberta181140,99653%
British Columbia7313,8675%
Northwest Territories56690.3%
Nunavut11870.1%
Total563264,163100%

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

  • Table 2 Note a No facilities from Yukon reported to the GHGRP.

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2.5 Reported GHG Emissions by Sector

When completing a report for the GHGRP, a reporter is required to identify the main activities occurring at its facility using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).Footnote 8 In 2015, three NAICS defined industry sectors accounted for the majority of GHG emissions: the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, representing 33% (88 Mt); the Utilities sector, primarily facilities generating electricity from fossil fuels, accounting for 32% (86 Mt); and the Manufacturing sector, accounting for 29% (76 Mt) (Figure 6). Further breakdowns of the reported emissions from these main sectors are provided in Figure 7 and in Figure 8. The remaining 6% (15 Mt) of emissions captured under “Other” were reported by various types of facilities, mainly natural gas transportation pipelines (9 Mt) and solid waste landfills (6 Mt).

Figure 6: Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Industry Sector (264 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 6
Long Description

Figure 6 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2015 GHG emissions by main industry sector. Facilities reported 264 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2015. Facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector accounted for 33%, Utilities for 32%, and Manufacturing for 29%. The OtherFigure 6 Note a category, accounting for the remaining 6% of emissions, includes facilities that fall into industry sectors other than those already mentioned, such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities.

Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Industry Sector (264 Mt CO2 eq)
Industry SectorPercentage of Total Emissions (264 Mt)
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction33%
Utilities32%
Manufacturing29%
OtherFigure 6 Note a6%
Total100%
  • Figure 6 Note a. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

Activities of reporting facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector can be further broken down into three categories (Figure 7):

  1. non-conventional oil extraction, the dominant sub-category which includes oil sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading (74%);
  2. conventional extraction of oil and natural gas (17%); and
  3. mining of metal ore (e.g., iron) (4%), coal (2%), and non-metallic minerals (e.g., potash and diamonds) (2%).
Figure 7: Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (84 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 7
Long Description

Figure 7 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the 2015 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sectors. Facilities of these subsectors reported 88 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2015. Non-conventional oil extraction and conventional oil and gas extraction accounted for the majority of these emissions at 74% and 17% respectively. Metal ore mining accounted for an additional 4%, coal mining for 2%, and non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying for the remaining 2%.

Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction SubsectorPercentage of Total Sector Emissions (88 Mt)
Non-Conventional Oil Extraction74%
Conventional Oil and Gas Extraction17%
Metal Ore Mining4%
Coal Mining2%
Non-Metallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying2%
Total100%

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

The Manufacturing sector includes a wide range of industrial activities, with important contributors to the reported 2015 emissions being (Figure 8):

  1. petroleum and coal product manufacturing (23%);
  2. iron, steel and ferro-alloy manufacturing (17%);
  3. basic chemical manufacturing (e.g., ethylene, polyethylene, hydrogen gas) (14%); and
  4. cement and concrete product manufacturing (14%).
Figure 8: Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Manufacturing (76 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 8
Long Description

Figure 8 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of 2015 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of the Manufacturing sector. Facilities in this sector reported 76 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2015. The top four contributors to reported emissions in the Manufacturing sector were petroleum and coal products at 23%, iron and steel mills and ferro-alloys at 17%, basic chemicals at 14%, and cement and concrete products at 14%. Alumina and aluminium production and processing accounted for 9% of emissions, pesticide, fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals for 8%, and wood products and paper for 6%. The remaining emissions for this sector break down as follows: lime and gypsum product manufacturing, 3%; non-ferrous metal (except aluminium) production and processing,Figure 8 Note a 2%; food beverage manufacturing, 1%; and other manufacturingFigure 8 Note b activities, 3%.

Reported 2015 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Manufacturing
Manufacturing SubsectorPercentage of Total Sector Emissions (76 Mt)
Petroleum and Coal Products23%
Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloys 17%
Basic Chemicals14%
Cement and Concrete Products 14%
Alumina and Aluminium Production and Processing 9%
Pesticide, Fertilizer, Other Agricultural Chemicals 8%
Wood Products and Paper6%
Lime and Gypsum Products 3%
Other ManufacturingFigure 8 Note b3%
Non-Ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Production and ProcessingFigure 8 Note a2%
Food, Beverage and Tobacco Products1%
Total100%
  • Figure 8 Note a. Non-ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Production and Processing includes the production of base metals (e.g. copper, nickel, zinc).
  • Figure 8 Note b. “Other Manufacturing” represents other types of manufacturing, including electrical equipment, transportation equipment and furniture manufacturing.

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The number of facilities reporting GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada can change from year to year. Changes in production levels, processes and technologies, the types of fuels used at a facility, and facility start-ups/closures can all result in a change in the annual emissions reported, so that a facility may fall below or attain the reporting threshold of 50 kt CO2 eq. from one year to the next. The number of voluntary reporters may also change each year, which can also affect the number of reporting facilities.

Over the 2005–2015 period, the number of reporting facilities increased from 337 to 563 (Table 3). Since 2009, facilities with emissions under 100 kt have accounted, on average, for just over 5% of the total reported emissions. Consequently, emissions from these facilities do not contribute significantly to the observed trends in total reported emissions at the national level; however, these facilities may affect the observed trends at the provincial/territorial levels.

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3.1 Overall National-Level Trends

Total reported GHG emissions in 2015, at 264 Mt, were essentially unchanged from 2014 (Table 3).Footnote 9. Over the 2005-2015 period, total facility-reported emissions decreased overall by 5% (14 Mt), from 278 to 264 Mt. In contrast with the decadal trend, total emissions over the last five years increased by 3% (8 Mt).

The number of facilities reporting their emissions has consistently increased over the last several years, following an initial increase of more than 50% in 2009 when the reporting threshold was changed from 100 to 50 kt. However, overall GHG emissions did not increase accordingly: their variations are mainly driven by the evolution of important industry sectors and the influence of the largest emitters (i.e. emissions above 100 kt) (Figure 2).

Table 3: Total Facility-Reported GHG Emissions, Selected Years
Empty20052009Table 3 Note a201020112012201320142015
Number of facilities337536539545554570573563
GHG emissions (kt CO2 eq)277,997253,017263,504255,671259,496260,797263,523264,163
Annual change (%)N/A-4%4%-3%2%1%1%0.2%
Change since 2005 (%)N/A-9%-5%-8%-7%-6%-5%-5%

Notes:

N/A = not applicable.

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  • Table 3 Note a The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt.

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3.2 Industry Sector and Provincial/Territorial Trends

The summary of facility-reported emissions by NAICS industry sector provides a picture of the types of facilities (mostly industrial operations) that report to the GHGRP in response to the annual GHG reporting requirements (Figure 9 and Table 4).The provincial breakdown of each main industry sector highlights the regional presence of key industries accounting for the reported emissions (e.g., large component of emissions from the Manufacturing sector in Ontario, Quebec and Alberta) (Table 5).

GHG emissions reported by the Mining, Quarrying, Oil and Gas Extraction sector have increased over the last decade, surpassing in 2015 those reported by the Utilities sector, which had previously led contributions to the overall reported total (Figure 9). On the other hand, the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors have reported reduced emissions since 2005 (Figure 9). Various factors have led to these trends and are further discussed in this section.

Figure 9: Long-Term Sectoral Trend, 2005-2015Figure 9 Note a
Figure 9
Long Description

Figure 9 is a line chart showing the changes in facility-reported GHG emissions in the four main industrial sectors between 2005 and 2015. In 2005, Utilities was the highest GHG emitting sector, followed by the Manufacturing sector, and the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. There is an overall increasing trend in emissions from the Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction sector while emissions from the Manufacturing sector and Utilities have generally decreased since 2005. In 2015, the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector became the highest GHG-emitting sector, followed by Utilities and the Manufacturing sector. Other sectors include various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities. GHG emissions from these other sectors remained stable between 2005 and 2015.

Long-Term Sectoral Trend, 2005–2015 Reported GHG Emissions (Mt CO2 eq)
YearMining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionUtilitiesManufacturingOtherFigure 9 Note a
2005481239215
2006531168914
2007551228714
2008551138412
2009621037413
2010691067712
201172947812
201278907913
201382897614
201484897615
201588867615

Note:

  • Figure 9 Note a Other - not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports and institutional facilities (universities, hospitals and public administration buildings).
Table 4: Reported GHG Emissions by NAICS Industry Sector, Selected Years (Units: Mt CO2 eq)
NAICSTable 4 Note a Industry SectorSubsector20052009Table 4 Note b201020112012201320142015
TotalTable 4 Note cAll subsectors278253264256259261264264
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionAll subsectors4862697278828488
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionConventional oil and gas extraction1415151514151615
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNon-conventional oil extractionTable 4 Note d2842474955596165
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionCoal mining22333332
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionMetal ore mining33334433
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNon-metallic mineral mining and quarrying0.81122222
22 - UtilitiesAll subsectors1231031069490898986
22 - UtilitiesElectric power generation1221011039288868784
22 - UtilitiesNatural gas distribution12222221
22 - UtilitiesWater, sewage and other systemsTable 4 Note e0.10.50.40.50.50.50.50.5
31-33 ManufacturingAll subsectors9274777879767676
31-33 ManufacturingFood, beverage, and tobacco products0.30.70.80.70.70.70.80.8
31-33 ManufacturingWood products and paper54455555
31-33 ManufacturingPetroleum and coal products2019181718171717
31-33 ManufacturingBasic chemicals1311101111111111
31-33 ManufacturingPesticide, fertilizer, other agricultural chemicals65666666
31-33 ManufacturingCement and concrete products139101011101011
31-33 ManufacturingLime and gypsum products32222222
31-33 ManufacturingIron and steel mills and ferro-alloys1711141415131413
31-33 ManufacturingPrimary production of alumina and aluminium108888877
31-33 ManufacturingNon-ferrous metal (except alum.) smelting and refining32222222
31-33 ManufacturingOther manufacturingTable 4 Note f0.72222222
OtherTable 4 Note gAll subsectors1513121213141515
OtherTable 4 Note gPipeline transportation of natural gas127676899
OtherTable 4 Note gSupport activities for air transportationN/A0.10.070.070.060.050.060.09
OtherTable 4 Note gWaste management and remediation services35555556
OtherTable 4 Note gInstitutional facilitiesN/A0.40.50.50.70.60.60.7

Notes:

N/A = not applicable.

  • Table 4 Note a Facilities required to report to the GHGRP provide a primary NAICS code that describes the main activities occurring at the facility.
  • Table 4 Note b The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt.
  • Table 4 Note c Totals may not add up due to rounding.
  • Table 4 Note d Includes facilities engaged in oils sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading.
  • Table 4 Note e Includes sewage treatment facilities, heating and steam generation plants.
  • Table 4 Note f Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by facilities engaged in other types of manufacturing such as Electrical Equipment, Transportation Equipment and Furniture Manufacturing.
  • Table 4 Note g Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports and institutional facilities (universities, hospitals and public administration buildings).
Table 5: Reported GHG Emissions by Industry Sector and by Province/Territory, Selected Years (Units: Mt CO2 eq)
Industry SectorProvince / Territory20052009Table 5 Note a201020112012201320142015
TotalNational278253264256259261264264
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNational4862697278828488
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNewfoundland and Labrador33333333
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNova ScotiaN/A0.30.30.20.20.40.50.4
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNew BrunswickN/AN/A0.060.060.060.02N/A0.06
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionQuebec21222222
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionOntario0.20.20.20.10.10.30.30.3
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionManitobaN/A0.060.050.10.20.20.080.08
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionSaskatchewan33334445
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionAlberta3550545662656771
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionBritish Columbia55667776
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNorthwest Territories0.40.50.50.60.50.60.60.6
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNunavutN/AN/A0.10.20.20.20.20.2
22 - UtilitiesNational1231031069490898986
22 - UtilitiesNewfoundland and Labrador10.80.70.70.70.811
22 - UtilitiesNova Scotia119998877
22 - UtilitiesNew Brunswick96544444
22 - UtilitiesQuebec0.510.50.60.50.40.40.4
22 - UtilitiesOntario3620251818151010
22 - UtilitiesManitoba0.60.20.060.080.070.090.070.1
22 - UtilitiesSaskatchewan1516161516151516
22 - UtilitiesAlberta5048484644444947
22 - UtilitiesBritish Columbia2220.90.9110.8
22 - UtilitiesNorthwest TerritoriesN/A0.06N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A0.06
31-33 ManufacturingNational9274777879767676
31-33 ManufacturingNewfoundland and Labrador1110.910.91.01
31-33 ManufacturingPrince Edward Island0.10.070.060.070.050.060.060.05
31-33 ManufacturingNova Scotia11111100
31-33 ManufacturingNew Brunswick44444434
31-33 ManufacturingQuebec2017181717171717
31-33 ManufacturingOntario3826272829272827
31-33 ManufacturingManitoba11111111
31-33 ManufacturingSaskatchewan22323333
31-33 ManufacturingAlberta1817171818181819
31-33 ManufacturingBritish Columbia65555555
OtherTable 5 Note bNational1513121213141515
OtherTable 5 Note bNova ScotiaN/A0.060.040.04N/AN/AN/AN/A
OtherTable 5 Note bQuebec0.30.910.81111
OtherTable 5 Note bOntario54343445
OtherTable 5 Note bManitoba10.70.70.70.60.70.80.9
OtherTable 5 Note bSaskatchewan32222222
OtherTable 5 Note bAlberta43334444
OtherTable 5 Note bBritish Columbia12222222

Notes:

N/A = not applicable.

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

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  • Table 5 Note a The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt.
  • Table 5 Note b “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

3.2.1 Short-Term Changes

The 3% (8 Mt) increase in total reported emissions over the last five years is mostly due to the 14% increase in emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector (16 Mt from 2011 to 2015) (Table 4), largely in Alberta (Table 5). Non-conventional oil extraction in Alberta experienced a 15-Mt increase in emissions, owing to a 13% increase in synthetic crude oil production and an 84% increase in non-upgraded bitumen production during this period.Footnote 10 Saskatchewan facilities also contributed to the increase, with several new facilities (potash mines, oil and gas extraction) reporting to the program for the first time in the last few years (Table 5).Footnote 11

The sustained increase in the above sector is offset by emission reductions in the Utilities sector (Figure 9). Electric power generation had a decrease in emissions of 8 Mt (Table 4), attributed to the closure of coal-fired plants in Ontario and to lower fuel consumption due to changes in power generation levels.Footnote 12

Overall emissions from the Manufacturing sector have remained largely stable since 2011, with only minor variations in emission levels in certain subsectors (e.g., iron and steel, cement manufacturing) (Table 4).

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3.2.2 Long-Term Trends

Over the 2005-2015 period, total reported emissions decreased by 5% (14 Mt). The major long-term trends are similar to the short-term trends in that, since 2005, emissions from facilities in the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors have declined overall, while emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector have steadily increased (Figure 9).

Up to and including the year 2014, the Utilities sector consistently accounted for the largest portion of reported emissions (Figure 9), with electric power generation being the main contributor. Emissions from fossil-fuel electric power generation fell significantly (38 Mt) over this period (Table 4), largely the result of a shut-down of all coal-fired electricity production in Ontario as well as emission reductions in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Alberta (Table 5). Fuel switching (i.e., from coal to natural gas, a lower carbon fuel) and increased reliance on hydro, nuclear and renewable sources of generation are also contributors to the decrease in emissions.Footnote 13

Emissions from the Manufacturing sector remain well below their 2005 levels (Figure 9), with an 18% reduction (16 Mt). The industry continues to rebound from the reduced production and slowdowns associated with the 2009 recession,Footnote 14 with manufacturing sales steadily increasing and surpassing 2006 levels in 2014.Footnote 15 Between 2005 and 2015, Ontario and Quebec showed the largest decreases in GHG emissions from the Manufacturing sector. Ontario saw a net decrease of 11 Mt (Table 5), largely observed in iron/steel, cement, and chemical manufacturing (e.g., halted adipic acid production in 2009) (Table 4). Quebec showed an overall decrease in emissions of 3 Mt from 2005 to 2015 (Table 5), with aluminium production and petroleum refining facilities contributing the most to this provincial change (Table 4). Emission decreases in aluminium production resulted from technological change,Footnote 16, Footnote 17 , Footnote 18 the closure of aluminium smelters in Quebec, and the conversion of a petroleum refinery to a storage terminal.

The Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas extraction sector has shown an increasing trend over the last decade (Figure 9) to become the dominant emitting sector in 2015. Most of the increase (40 Mt between 2005 and 2015) was driven by non-conventional oil extraction facilities in Alberta (36 Mt growth since 2005), Saskatchewan and British Columbia, reflecting this sector’s steady growth trend.

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4. Facility-Reported Emissions and the National GHG Inventory

The total facility-reported GHG emissions for 2015 collected under the GHGRP represent just over one third (37%) of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2015 (722 Mt) and over half (58%) of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions,Footnote 19 as reported in Canada’s latest National Inventory Report (NIR).Footnote 20 The GHGRP applies to the largest GHG-emitting facilities (mostly industrial) and does not cover other sources of GHG emissions (e.g., road transportation, agricultural sources), whereas the NIR is a complete accounting of all GHG sources and sinks in Canada.

When comparing the provincial and territorial contribution to the facility-reported total from the GHGRP with the national total from the NIR, the distribution of emissions by province shows a similar pattern (Figure 10). Alberta has the highest emissions, followed by Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan. This pattern of industrial emissions reflects the regional concentration of large industrial facilities and trends in the use of fossil fuels for energy production.

Figure 10: Provincial/Territorial Contribution to 2015 Facility-Reported (GHGRP) Total and NIR Total
Figure 10
Long Description

Figure 10 is a column chart comparing the provincial/territorial distribution of the GHG emissions from the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report. The two distributions follow a similar pattern, with Alberta contributing the largest quantity of emissions by province, followed by Ontario.

Provincial/Territorial Contribution to 2015 Facility-Reported (GHGRP) Total and NIR TotalTable 10 Note a
GHG Emissions (kt CO2 eq)
Province/TerritoryGreenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting ProgramNational Inventory Report
Newfoundland and Labrador4,92510,323
Prince Edward Island501,765
Nova Scotia7,61016,228
New Brunswick7,25914,094
Quebec19,79480,133
Ontario41,934166,168
Manitoba2,09520,762
Saskatchewan24,77772,411
Alberta140,996274,142
British Columbia13,86760,909
Northwest Territories6691,441
Nunavut187626
Total excluding Yukon264,163719,002

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

  • Figure 10 Note a No facilities from Yukon reported to the GHGRP.

Although the facility-reported emissions may capture 58% of industrial GHG emissions nationally, the degree of coverage at the provincial level varies significantly from province to province (Figure 11), due to the size and number of industrial facilities in each province that have emissions above the 50 kt CO2 eq. reporting threshold.

Figure 11: 2015 Facility-Reported Emissions as a Percentage of National and Provincial/Territorial Industrial GHG EmissionsFigure 11 Note a (from the NIR)
Figure 11
Long Description

Figure 11 is a column-stacked chart showing the percentages of industrial GHG emissions from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, accounted for by the facility-reported data from the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program (GHGRP). The degree of coverage by the GHGRP at the national and provincial/territorial level ranges from 12% in Prince Edward Island to 100% in Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut combined, with the coverage of industrial emissions nationally at 58%. In this overview report, Canada’s industrial greenhouse gas emissions include the following categories from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990–2015: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.

2015 Facility-Reported Emissions as a Percentage of National and Provincial/Territorial Industrial GHG Emissions Figure 11 Note a (from the NIR)
Province/TerritoryGreenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting ProgramNational Inventory Report
Newfoundland and Labrador67%33%
Prince Edward Island12%88%
Nova Scotia77%23%
New Brunswick80%20%
Quebec51%49%
Ontario51%49%
Manitoba30%70%
Saskatchewan49%51%
Alberta65%35%
British Columbia42%58%
YukonFigure 11 Note b, Northwest Territories and Nunavut100%0%
National58%42%

Notes:

  • Figure 11 Note a In this overview report, Canada’s industrial GHG emissions include the following GHG categories from the National Inventory Report 1990–2015: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.
  • Figure 11 Note b No facilities from Yukon reported to the GHGRP.

Where appropriate, the facility-reported emissions data are used by Environment and Climate Change Canada to confirm inventory estimates developed from national and provincial statistics in the NIR. The NIR is produced and submitted annually by Canada to the UNFCCC. The extent to which the facility-reported GHG emissions data could be fully integrated into the NIR is dependent on the level of detail and type of data available.

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5. Additional Information About the GHGRP

5.1 Data Quality

Facilities that meet the GHG reporting requirements under the GHGRP must ensure that the reported data are reliable. Facilities are required by law to submit information that is true, accurate and complete to the best of their knowledge. CEPA sets out penalties for companies that fail to report or that knowingly submit false or misleading information. Reporters have a legal obligation to keep copies of the information submitted, along with any calculations, measurements and other data on which the information is based. All information must be kept for a period of three years from the date on which it was required to be reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada.

The data provided in this report are for information purposes only. Environment and Climate Change Canada conducted a number of data quality checks of the submitted data for compliance purposes and for completeness, and it will continue to analyze the data, which may result in periodic updates.

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5.2 Public Access

The GHGRP provides public access to information from all facilities that reported GHG emissions to the program through an annual online publication. In addition to this summary report, the facility-level data are presented in the form of tables, a searchable database and a downloadable format. Users can search by emissions of a specific gas or emissions of all gases, by facility name or National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) identification number, by reporting company, by province/territory or city, or by industry sector, using the NAICSFootnote 21 code. Users can also access a web-based mapping tool on the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators website, which shows where reporting facilities are located in Canada.

To access the data or obtain further information on the GHGRP or National Greenhouse Gas Inventory program, consult the following websites:

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The GHGRP is similar to, yet distinct from, the NPRI. Although both programs are delivered by Environment and Climate Change Canada under the authority of section 46 of CEPA, the NPRI collects data from facilities on pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling, whereas the GHGRP collects data from facilities on GHG emissions. Facilities reporting to the GHGRP are asked to report their NPRI identification number to facilitate searching and comparison of emissions from facilities that report to both programs.

A number of provincial jurisdictions also require facilities to report GHG emissions information annually under specific provincial regulations. Efforts have been undertaken to streamline the reporting process between the national and various provincial jurisdictions, resulting in the launch of a single-window reporting system to help reduce the reporting burden on industry and the overall cost to government. This single-window system allows one-time entry for information commonly required at both levels, while accommodating requirements that are jurisdiction-specific. Provinces currently using this reporting system include Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and New Brunswick.

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6. Contact Us

If you have questions about this report or for more information about its content, please contact the GHGRP:

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program
Place Vincent Massey, 7th Floor
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3
 E-mail: ec.ges-ghg.ec@canada.ca
 GHG Helpline: 1-819-938-3258
 Toll free: 1-877-877-8375
Website: Facility Greenhouse Gas Reporting

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