Facility Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting - Overview of Reported 2014 Emissions

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Highlights

  • For the 2014 calendar year, 574 facilities reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada, totalling 264 megatonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq). The main emission sources contributing to this reported total are stationary fuel combustion and industrial processes, accounting for 75% and 14% of the combined total for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).
  • The reported emissions are, for the most part, evenly distributed across three sectors: (i) Utilities (34%), (ii) Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (32%), and (iii) Manufacturing (29%). Among all facilities, those engaged in electricity generation and oil/gas extraction account for 62% of the total.
  • Total facility-reported emissions in 2014 remained largely unchanged from the 2013 total of 261 Mt, consistent with observations since 2010, where year-to-year changes in overall reported emissions were relatively small (i.e. 3% or less).
  • From 2005 to 2014, total emissions from all reporting facilities decreased overall by 5%. Ontario based facilities in the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors experienced the largest declines (25 Mt and 10 Mt, respectively) over this 10-year period, while reported emissions increased by 37 Mt from facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, largely in Alberta (33 Mt).
  • The GHG emissions data collected from facilities represent just over one third (36%) of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2014 (732 Mt) and 56% of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions as reported in Canada’s National Inventory Report.Footnote 1 The degree of coverage of provincial and territorial industrial emissions varies significantly due to the size and number of industrial facilities in each province or territory that have emissions above the 50 kt CO2 eq reporting threshold.

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1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program

Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program (GHGRP) has completed the collection of GHG emissions information from Canadian facilities for the 2014 calendar year. Any facility with annual GHG emissions of 50 kilotonnes (kt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) or higherFootnote 2 is required to report to the program.

The Government of Canada established the GHGRP in March 2004 under the authority of section 46 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) to collect GHG emissions information annually from the largest emitting Canadian facilities. To date, facility-reported GHG information has been collected and published through Environment and Climate Change Canada’s GHGRP for the period 2004 to 2014. This program is part of Canada’s ongoing effort to develop, in collaboration with Canadian provinces and territories, a harmonized and efficient mandatory GHG reporting system that minimizes duplication and reporting burden for industry and governments. Key objectives of the program are to provide Canadians with consistent information on GHG emissions, confirm industrial emission estimates presented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and support regulatory initiatives. The data collected are also shared with provinces and territories. The data used in this overview report are current as of October 2, 2015. Subsequent company updates will be included in future data releases.

The federal reporting requirements for 2015 data, scheduled to be submitted by facilities to Environment and Climate Change Canada by June 1, 2016, are set out in the Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2015 published in the Canada Gazette.

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2. Reported 2014 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Note: Unless explicitly stated otherwise, all emissions data presented in this report are expressed in CO2 eq units.

For the purposes of the GHGRP, a facility is defined as a contiguous facility, pipeline transportation system, or offshore installation. A contiguous facility is defined as all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items that are located on a single site or on contiguous or adjacent sites, that are owned or operated by the same person and that function as a single integrated site; it includes wastewater collection systems that discharge treated or untreated wastewater into surface waters.Footnote 3

A total of 574 facilities reported their GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada for the 2014 calendar year, collectively emitting a total of 264 megatonnes (Mt) of GHGs (Figure 1).Footnote 4 Of these facilities, 310 reported GHG emission levels greater than 100 kt, accounting for 94% (249 Mt) of the total reported emissions, and 52 emitted GHGs in quantities higher than 1 Mt, accounting for 62% (162 Mt) of the total reported emissions (Figure 2). Thirty-three facilities reported their GHG emissions for the first time, mostly from conventional oil and gas extraction (21 facilities), totalling 2 Mt. Facilities with emissions falling below the reporting threshold of 50 kt per year can voluntarily report their GHG emissions; 82 facilities did so this year, representing 0.7% (2 Mt). Reported emissions from voluntary reporters are included in this report and in the data set published by Environment and Climate Change Canada.

Figure 1: 2014 Facility GHG Emissions Reported to Environment and Climate Change CanadaFigure 1 Note a, Figure 1 Note b
Figure 1
Long Description

Figure 1 is a map of facilities that reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment Canada in 2014. The map excludes pipeline transportation systems. As shown, the facilities are unevenly distributed across the country, with a higher concentration of large industrial facilities in some provinces than in others. Facilities are highly concentrated in Alberta, and many also stretch from Windsor, Ontario, to Quebec City, Quebec. The map indicates a smaller number of facilities in British Colombia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Maritime provinces.

Figure 2: Contribution of Facilities in Various Emission Ranges to Total Reported Emissions (2014)
Figure 2
Long Description

Figure 2 is a column-scatter chart showing the number of facilities falling within various emissions ranges and their combined contribution to the total emissions reported to the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program in 2014. While 182 facilities reported 50-100 kilotonnes of GHG emissions, their combined total accounted for only 5% of total reported emissions. There were 52 facilities with greater than 1 megatonne of annual GHG emissions, accounting for 62% of total reported emissions.

Contribution of Facilities in Various Emission Ranges to Total Reported Emissions (2014)
 Reported Emissions (kt CO2 eq)
0-5050-100100-250250-1 0001 000+
Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.
Percentage of Total Emissions (264 Mt)1582562
Number of Facilities8218213212652

Note: Facilities in the 0-50 kt range voluntarily reported their emissions.

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2.1 Calculation Methodology

A facility may choose among a number of available methods to calculate its GHG emissions. The methods selected by reporting facilities must be consistent with the guidelines developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the preparation of national GHG inventories. Reporting facilities must indicate the types of methods used to determine the quantities of emissions reported. Such methods may include monitoring or direct measurement (MDM), mass balance (MB), emission factors (EF) and/or engineering estimates (EE).

Overall, methods incorporating the use of EFs were the approach preferred by most facilities (Figure 3). An EF is a measure that indicates the rate at which a GHG is released into the atmosphere due to a given activity, such as burning a specific fuel type or production of a specific industrial product. The EFs used may be general or technology-specific. Many facilities used multiple types of calculation methods to determine their emissions.

Figure 3: Types of Methods Used by Facilities
Figure 3
Long Description

Figure 3 is a pie chart showing the types of calculation methods and their percent usage by facilities to estimate their GHG emissions. The most common method (at 64%) was the use of emission factors, followed by engineering estimates, at 14%. The remaining methods are mass balance, at 13%, and monitoring or direct measurements, at 9%.

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2.2 Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Global Warming Potentials

GHGs are not equal in their effect on the atmosphere. Each GHG has a unique average atmospheric lifetime and heat-trapping potential. GHG emissions are often calculated and reported in terms of how much CO2 would be required to produce a similar warming effect over a specific time horizon. This is called the CO2 eq value and is calculated by multiplying the amount of the gas by its associated global warming potential (GWP) (Table 1). Environment and Climate Change Canada uses the GWP values adopted by the UNFCCC, a complete list of which can be found in the Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2014. The GWP values used by the GHGRP are consistent with those used in Canada’s 2016 edition of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

Table 1: Global Warming Potential Values for the Main Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse Gas100-year GWPsTable 1 Note a
Table 1 Note a. GWPs were updated in 2013 and applied to all years.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)1
Methane (CH4)25
Nitrous oxide N2O298
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)22 800
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 13 speciesRanges from 92 to 14 800
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 7 speciesRanges from 7 390 to 12 200

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2.3 Reported GHG Emissions by Gas and by Source

CO2 represented the majority of the total reported emissions (94%) in 2014, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions contributed 5% and 1%, respectively (Figure 4). Facilities are also required to report emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) stemming from industrial processes or industrial product use. The combined emissions of these gases accounted for the remaining 1%.

Figure 4: Reported 2014 GHG Emissions by Gas (264 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 4
Long Description

Figure 4 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the reported 2014 GHG emissions by gas. Carbon dioxide emissions accounted for the majority of total emissions at 94%, while methane and nitrous oxide emissions each contributed an additional 5% and 1%, respectively. The combined emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride accounted for the remaining 1%.

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

When reporting to the GHGRP, facilities are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O according to the following eight source categories:Footnote 5 stationary fuel combustion, industrial processes, venting, flaring, fugitive sources, on-site transportation, waste and wastewater. Stationary fuel combustion is the largest source of reported emissions, representing 75% of the total (Figure 5). This source includes emissions resulting from the burning of fuels for the purpose of producing energy (e.g., to generate electricity, heat or steam), but does not include sources like combustion engines in vehicles. Any waste material burned or incinerated at a facility to produce energy is also included in stationary combustion. Industrial process emissions, the second-largest source of reported emissions at 14%, refer to emissions stemming from specific industrial processes involving chemical or physical reactions other than combustion. Such reactions occur, for example, in the processes of mineral production (e.g., lime, cement), metal production (e.g., iron, steel, aluminium) and chemical production (e.g., nitric acid and ammonia production).

Figure 5: Reported 2014 GHG Emissions by Source (CO2, CH4 and N2O Included)
Figure 5
Long Description

Figure 5 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2014 GHG emissions by emission source category. Stationary fuel combustion was the largest source of emissions at 75%. Industrial processes accounted for 14%, venting accounted for 3%, fugitive, flaring, waste, and on-site transportation each accounted for 2%, and wastewater accounted for 0.1%.

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

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2.4 Reported GHG Emissions by Province/Territory

Facilities in the province of Alberta accounted for the largest share of reported emissions, with approximately 53% of the total, followed by facilities in Ontario with 16%, Saskatchewan with 9% and Quebec with 8% (Table 2). The number of facilities, the quantity and type of fuel consumed and the predominant industry largely explain this ranking.

Table 2: Reported 2014 GHG Emissions by Province/Territory
Province/TerritoryNumber of FacilitiesTotal Emissions (kt CO2 eq)Percentage of Total EmissionsTable 2 Note a
  • Table 2 Note a. No facilities from Yukon reported to the GHGRP.
  • Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.
Newfoundland and Labrador84 8062%
Prince Edward Island1550.02%
Nova Scotia107 8293%
New Brunswick127 5443%
Quebec8420 0088%
Ontario13943 01716%
Manitoba121 9611%
Saskatchewan4223 9339%
Alberta182139 26653%
British Columbia7914 7586%
Northwest Territories45760.2%
Nunavut11800.1%
Total574263 936 

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2.5 Reported GHG Emissions by Sector

When completing a report for the GHGRP, a reporter is required to identify the main activities occurring at its facility using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).Footnote 6 In 2014, three NAICS defined industry sectors accounted for the majority of GHG emissions: the Utilities sector, represented primarily by facilities generating electricity from fossil fuels, accounting for 34% (89 Mt), the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, accounting for 32% (84 Mt); and the Manufacturing sector, accounting for 29% (76 Mt) (Figure 6). Further breakdowns of the reported emissions from these main sectors are provided in Figures 7 and 8. The remaining 6% (15 Mt) of emissions captured under “Other” were reported by various types of facilities, mainly natural gas transportation pipelines (8.6 Mt) and solid waste landfills (4.8 Mt).

Figure 6: Reported 2014 GHG Emissions by Industry Sector (264 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 6
Long Description

Figure 6 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2014 GHG emissions by main industry sector. The industry groupings used in this report are based on the North American Industry Classification System. The Utilities sector accounted for 34%, the Manufacturing sector for 29%, and the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector for 32%. The Other categoryFigure 6 Note a accounts for the remaining 6% of emissions.

  • Figure 6 Note a. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.
  • Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Activities of reporting facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector can be grouped into three categories, with most emissions stemming from non-conventional oil extraction (Figure 7):

  1. Non-conventional oil extraction, which includes oil sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading (72%);
  2. Conventional extraction of oil and natural gas (18%); and
  3. Mining of metal ore (e.g. iron) (4%), coal (3%), and non-metallic minerals (e.g. potash and diamonds) (2%).
Figure 7: Reported 2014 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (84 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 7
Long Description

Figure 7 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the 2014 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. Non-conventional oil extraction and conventional oil and gas extraction accounted for the majority of emissions, at 72% and 18%, respectively. Metal ore mining accounted for an additional 4%, coal mining for 3%, and non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying for the remaining 2%.

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

The Manufacturing sector includes a wide range of subsectors, with facilities engaged in the following activities serving as important contributors to the reported 2014 emissions (Figure 8):

  1. petroleum and coal product manufacturing (22%);
  2. iron, steel and ferro-alloy manufacturing (19%);
  3. basic chemical manufacturing (14%) and;
  4. cement and concrete product manufacturing (13%).
Figure 8: Reported 2014 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Manufacturing (76 Mt CO2 eq)
Figure 8
Long Description

Figure 8 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of 2014 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of the Manufacturing sector. The top four contributors to reported emissions in this sector were petroleum and coal product manufacturing at 22%, iron and steel mills and ferro-alloy manufacturing at 19%, basic chemical manufacturing at 14%, and cement and concrete product manufacturing at 13%. Alumina and aluminium production and processing accounted for 9% of emissions, pesticide and fertilizer manufacturing for 8%, and wood product and paper manufacturing for 6%. The remaining emissions in this sector break down as follows: lime and gypsum product manufacturing, 3%; non-ferrous metal (except aluminium) production and processingFigure 8 Note a, 2%; food beverage manufacturing, 1%; and other manufacturingFigure 8 Note b activities, 3%.

  • Figure 8 Note a. Non-ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Production and Processing includes the production of base metals (e.g. copper, nickel, zinc).
  • Figure 8 Note b. “Other Manufacturing” represents other types of manufacturing, including electrical equipment, transportation equipment and furniture manufacturing.

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The number of facilities reporting GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada can change from year to year. Changes in production levels, processes and technologies, the types of fuels used at a facility, and facility start-ups/closures can all result in a change in the annual emissions reported, so that a facility may fall below or attain the reporting threshold of 50 kt CO2 eq from one year to the next. The number of voluntary reporters may also change each year, which can also affect the number of reporting facilities. The reduction in the reporting threshold (from 100 to 50 kt) that occurred in 2009 resulted in an approximately 50% increase in the number of facilities reporting their GHG emissions annually to Environment and Climate Change Canada.

Over the 2005–2014 period, the number of reporting facilities increased from 337 in 2005 to 574 in 2014 (Table 3). Since 2009, facilities with emissions under 100 kt have accounted, on average, for just over 5% of the total reported emissions. Consequently, emissions from these facilities do not contribute significantly to the observed trends in total reported emissions at the national level; however, these facilities may affect the observed trends at the provincial/territorial levels.

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3.1 Overall National-Level Trends

Over the 2005-2014 period, total facility-reported emissions decreased by 5% (14 Mt), from 278 to 264 Mt (Table 3). Total reported GHG emissions in 2014, at 264 Mt, were essentially unchanged from the 2013 total of 261 Mt,Footnote 7 reflecting a similar trend since 2010, with the overall total remaining relatively steady with only minor inter-annual variability.

Table 3: Total Facility-Reported GHG Emissions, 2005–2014
 20052006200720082009Table 3 Note a20102011201220132014
Number of facilities337345352351536542544554570574
GHG emissions (kt CO2 eq)277 997271 940277 271263 309253 008263 496255 587259 287260 742263 936
Annual change (%)NATable 3 Note b-2.2%2.0%-5.0%-3.9%4.1%-3.0%1.4%0.6%1.2%
Change since 2005 (%)NA-2.2%-0.3%-5.3%-9.0%-5.2%-8.1%-6.7%-6.2%-5.1%

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3.2 Provincial/Territorial Trends

3.2.1 Short-Term Changes

Facility-reported GHG emissions, aggregated by province and territory, are summarized in Table 4, while Figure 9 shows the provincial/territorial short-term change (2013-2014). Emissions in recent years (2010-2014) showed no discernible trends for Quebec, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Saskatchewan, or British Columbia (Table 4).

Table 4: Reported GHG Emissions by Province/Territory, 2005–2014
Province/Territory2005200620072008200920102011201220132014
(Units: kt CO2 eq)
Newfoundland and Labrador5 3984 9755 4485 2914 3924 5604 2674 4174 4814 806
Prince Edward Island10410010299746365536055
Nova Scotia11 75110 81011 42111 11010 78810 6159 8798 8269 1307 829
New Brunswick12 65410 23410 91010 28710 1218 2317 8547 0507 5087 544
Quebec22 57222 68723 61020 28020 74621 04220 42121 00319 92720 008
Ontario78 70271 58074 34867 34149 99856 17949 22650 22445 53743 017
Manitoba2 9082 5212 4842 3622 1421 8902 0201 8892 0381 961
Saskatchewan22 61122 11823 00221 93622 46022 86222 47523 50923 72823 933
Alberta106 918113 851112 351110 642118 087123 199123 881126 906132 334139 266
British Columbia14 01812 74513 07313 42913 61014 17514 74514 65815 21214 758
Northwest Territories360320522533590545555550591576
NunavutN/ATable 4 Note aN/AN/AN/AN/A135199203196180
TotalTable 4 Note b277 997271 940277 271263 309253 008263 496255 587259 287260 742263 936

Over the short term (2010–2014), emissions from Ontario-based facilities decreased by 13 Mt. The 14.8-Mt decrease in emissions from fossil fuel electric power generation in that period is largely due to the closure of coal plants.

Alberta experienced a 16-Mt increase in overall emissions since 2010, largely due to an increase in emissions from non-conventional oil extraction (13 Mt). Although there has been a decrease in emissions from fossil fuel electric power generation since 2005 (0.5 Mt), 2014 saw an increase of 5 Mt, as shown in Figure 9. This was due to the fact that a number of coal-fired facilities expanded or became fully operational in 2014.

Figure 9: Provincial/Territorial Short-Term Change, 2013-2014
Figure 9
Long Description

Figure 9 is a bar chart showing the provincial and territorial short-term change in GHG emissions between 2013 and 2014 by sector (Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction, Utilities, Manufacturing, and Other). The Other sector includes various types of facilities, such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings. Provinces showing the biggest changes since 2013 are Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Alberta shows an increase in emissions of 2 394 kilotonnes (kt) from facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, and 4 909 kt from the Utilities sector. Ontario shows a decrease in emissions of 4 609 kt from the Utilities sector and an increase in emissions from the Manufacturing and Other sectors of 1 500 kt and 621 kt, respectively. Nova Scotia shows a 691-kt decrease in emissions from the Utilities sector and a 679-kt decrease in emissions from the Manufacturing sector.

Provincial/Territorial Short-Term Change, 2013-2014
Province/TerritoryMining, Quarrying, Oil and Gas ExtractionUtilitiesManufacturingOtherFigure 9 Note a
(Units: kt of CO2 eq)
NL1130035-
PE--4-
NS69691679-
NB24285224-
QC26312723
ON334 6091 500621
MB78138398
SK1469996254
AB2 3944 90928981
BC1801020658
NT15---
NU16---
  • Figure 9 Note a. "Other" includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

Over the 2005-2014 period, the overall emissions from reporting facilities in Nova Scotia gradually decreased, with the latest decrease from 2013 to 2014 (1.3 Mt) resulting mainly from emission reductions from coal-fired plants and the closure of a petroleum refinery in 2013.

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3.2.2 Long-Term Trends

The provincial/territorial long-term trend (i.e., since 2005) for all reporting facilities indicates an overall decline in facility-reported emissions for seven of the provinces and territories (Figure 10).

Figure 10: Provincial/Territorial Long-Term Change, 2005–2014
Figure 10
Long Description

Figure 10 is a bar chart showing the provincial and territorial long-term change in GHG emissions between 2005 and 2014 by sector (Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction, Utilities, Manufacturing and Other). The Other sector includes various facilities, such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities. Most provinces show a net decline in emissions since 2005, with significant decreases in Ontario (35 684 kt), New Brunswick (5 109 kt), Nova Scotia (3 923 kt), and Quebec (2 563 kt) and small decreases, ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 megatonnes, in Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island. The other provinces and territories show a net increase in reported emissions, with significant increases in Alberta (32 348 kt) and Saskatchewan (1 322 kt), and slight increases in British Columbia, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, ranging from 0.18 to 0.74 megatonnes.

Provincial/Territorial Long-Term Change, 2005–2014
Province/TerritoryMining, Quarrying, Oil and Gas ExtractionUtilitiesManufacturingOtherFigure 10 Note a
(Units: kt of CO2 eq)
NL30428316-
PE--49-
NS4603 533850.01-
NB-4 492617-
QC41.7359.503 5521 006
ON105.7825 2869 512992
MB79516210300
SK1 372545325919
AB32 73875561304
BC1 804638954529
NT216---
NU180---
  • Figure 10 Note a. "Other" includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

The Utilities sector was largely responsible for this decline, with emission reductions of 25 Mt in Ontario, 4.5 Mt in New Brunswick and 3.5 Mt in Nova Scotia over this period. Ontario also saw a net decrease of 10 Mt in emissions from the Manufacturing sector, largely observed in cement, iron/steel and chemical manufacturing (e.g. halted adipic acid production in 2009). Quebec showed an overall decrease in emissions of 2.6 Mt since 2005, with aluminium production and petroleum refining facilities in the Manufacturing sector contributing the most to this provincial change. Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island had smaller decreases in emissions, ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 Mt.

Alberta had a 32-Mt net increase in emissions, while Saskatchewan exhibited a minor overall emission increase of 1.3 Mt. In both provinces, these increases were led by facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. British Columbia and the Northwest Territories showed slight overall increases in facility-reported emissions, ranging from 0.2 to 0.74 Mt.

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3.3 Industry Sector Trends

The summary of facility-reported emissions by NAICS industry sector provides a picture of the types of facilities (mostly industrial operations) that report to the GHGRP in response to the annual GHG reporting requirements (Table 5). Over the 2005-2014 period, facilities engaged in oil and gas extraction and electricity generation continue to account for a significant portion of reported emissions (ranging from 59% to 63%). Their respective contribution to the total emissions has changed over this period, with electricity generation dropping from 44% to 33% and oil and gas extraction increasing from 15% to 29%.

Table 5: Reported GHG Emissions by NAICS Industry Sector, 2005–2014
NAICSTable 5 Note a Industry SectorSubsector20052006200720082009Table 5 Note b20102011201220132014
(Units: Mt CO2 eq)
  • Table 5 Note a. Facilities required to report to the GHGRP provide a primary NAICS code that describes the main activities occurring at the facility.
  • Table 5 Note b. The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt.
  • Table 5 Note c. Totals may not add up due to rounding.
  • Table 5 Note d. Includes facilities engaged in oils sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading.
  • Table 5 Note e. Includes sewage treatment facilities, heating and steam generation plants.
  • Table 5 Note f. Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by facilities engaged in other types of manufacturing such as Electrical Equipment, Transportation Equipment and Furniture Manufacturing.
  • Table 5 Note g. Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports and institutional facilities (universities, hospitals and public administration buildings).
  • Table 5 Note h. N/A = not available
TotalTable 5 Note c 278272277263253263256259261264
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction 48535555626972788284
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionConventional oil and gas extraction14141312151515141516
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNon-conventional oil extractionTable 5 Note d28343536424749555961
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionCoal mining2222233333
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionMetal ore mining3333333443
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionNon-metallic mineral mining and quarrying1111112222
22 - Utilities 12311612211310310694908989
22 - UtilitiesElectric power generation12211412011210110392888687
22 - UtilitiesNatural gas distribution1111222222
22 - UtilitiesWater, sewage and other systemsTable 5 Note e0.120.10N/ATable 5 Note h0.110.540.440.470.510.520.52
31-33 Manufacturing 92898784747778797676
31-33 ManufacturingFood and beverages0.340.230.230.220.6511111
31-33 ManufacturingWood productsN/ATable 5 Note hN/ATable 5 Note hN/ATable 5 Note hN/ATable 5 Note h0.140.150.100.110.170.16
31-33 ManufacturingPaper5454444455
31-33 ManufacturingPetroleum and coal products20202019191817171717
31-33 ManufacturingBasic chemical manufacturing13121212111011111111
31-33 ManufacturingResin, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibres and filaments0.07N/ATable 5 Note hN/ATable 5 Note hN/ATable 5 Note h0.20.220.200.200.200.20
31-33 ManufacturingPesticide, fertilizer, other agricultural chemicals6666566666
31-33 ManufacturingCement and concrete products1313131291010111010
31-33 ManufacturingLime and gypsum product manufacturing3333222222
31-33 ManufacturingIron and steel mills and ferro-alloys17171717111414151314
31-33 ManufacturingPrimary production of alumina and aluminium10999888887
31-33 ManufacturingNon-ferrous metal (except alum.) smelting and refining3322222222
31-33 ManufacturingOther manufacturingTable 5 Note f1110.391.4022222
OtherTable 5 Note g 15141412131212131415
OtherTable 5 Note gPipeline transportation of natural gas1211108767689
OtherTable 5 Note gSupport activities for air transportationN/ATable 5 Note h0.120.130.090.100.070.070.060.050.06
OtherTable 5 Note gWaste management and remediation services3333555555
OtherTable 5 Note gInstitutional facilitiesN/ATable 5 Note h0.02N/ATable 5 Note hN/ATable 5 Note h0.380.500.550.650.620.62

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3.3.1 Short-Term Changes

Changes between 2013 and 2014 are generally consistent with observed trends since 2010, such as the sustained emission increase in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector (an increase of 15 Mt over the period) (Table 5). The steady decline in total emissions from electric power generation since 2010 levelled off in 2013 and 2014, with the continued reduction of emissions from coal-fired facilities in Ontario being offset by increased emissions from similar facilities in Alberta (Figure 9).

The 10 industry subsectors showing the largest changes in emissions between 2013 and 2014 are shown in Figure 11. Facilities in these subsectors account for just over 77% of the total 2014 emissions. Non-conventional oil extraction led overall changes, with an increase in emissions of 2.2 Mt, consistent with a 1.9% increase in synthetic crude oil production and a 20% increase in crude bitumen production.Footnote 8 Iron and steel mills and ferro-alloy manufacturing experienced a 1.5-Mt increase, attributed to a higher production of steel.Footnote 9 Pipeline transportation of natural gas demonstrated a minor change in emissions from 2013, which reflects an increase in natural gas deliveries.

Figure 11: Top 10 Short-Term Changes by NAICS Industry Subsector, 2013–2014
Figure 11
Long Description

Figure 11 is a bar chart showing the top 10 industrial subsectors exhibiting the largest change in reported GHG emissions between 2013 and 2014. Four sectors showed a decrease in emissions of CO2 equivalent: primary production of alumina and aluminium (678 kt), chemical fertilizer (except potash) manufacturing (607 kt), other organic chemical manufacturing (284 kt), and other electric power generation (281). The other six sectors shown in the graph experienced increases in emissions: non-conventional oil extraction (2 197 kt), iron and steel mills and ferro-alloy manufacturing (1 466 kt), pipeline transportation of natural gas (828 kt), fossil-fuel electric power generation (544 kt), conventional oil and gas extraction (322 kt), and lime manufacturing (284 kt).

Top 10 Short-Term Changes by NAICS Industry Subsector, 2013–2014
NAICS IndustryChange in GHG Emissions (kt CO2 eq)
211114 - Non-Conventional Oil Extraction2 197
331110 - Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing1 466
486210 - Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas828
331313 - Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminium-678
325313 - Chemical Fertilizer (except potash) Manufacturing-607
221112 - Fossil-Fuel Electric Power Generation544
211113 - Conventional Oil and Gas Extraction322
327410 - Lime Maunfacturing301
325190 - Other Organic Chemical Manufacturing-284
221119 - Other Electric Power Generation-281

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3.3.2 Long-Term Trends

The long-term trend in reported emissions by NAICS industry sector shows that, since 2005, emissions from facilities in the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors have declined overall, while emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector have increased (Figure 12). In the Utilities sector, emissions from fossil fuel electric power generation have fallen significantly (37 Mt) (Figure 13), largely a result of a reduction in coal-fired electricity production in Ontario and smaller contributions from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Figure 10). Fuel switching (i.e., from coal to natural gas, a lower carbon fuel) and increased reliance on hydro, nuclear and renewable sources of generation are also contributors to the decrease in emissions.Footnote 10

Figure 12: Long-Term Sectoral Trend, 2005–2014
Figure 12
Long Description

Figure 12 is an area chart showing the changes in GHG emissions in the four main industrial sectors between 2005 and 2014. There was an overall increasing trend in emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, while emissions from the Manufacturing, Utilities and Other sectors generally decreased since 2005. The Other sector includes various types of facilities, such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities.

Long-Term Sectoral Trend, 2005–2014
YearReported GHG Emissions (Mt CO2 eq)
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionUtilitiesManufacturingOther
2005481249215
2006531168914
2007551228714
2008551138412
2009631037413
2010691067712
201172947812
201278907913
201382897614
201484897615

The non-conventional oil extraction subsector (including oil sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading) showed the largest overall increase in emissions (33 Mt) since 2005, reflecting this sector’s steady growth trend (Table 5). Over the 2005 to 2014 period, non-upgraded bitumen and synthetic crude oil production increased by 180% and 75%, respectively.Footnote 8

Emissions from the Manufacturing sector remain well below their 2005 levels. The industry continues to rebound from the 2009 recession, which caused reduced production and plant operation slowdowns.Footnote 11 Although sales and prices in this sector have been increasing in recent years, sales are still not yet at the levels seen in 2005.Footnote 12

Natural gas transportation pipeline facilities, captured under the “Other” category, are the main contributors to emissions in this category. Between 2005 and 2010, emissions from these facilities decreased by 6 Mt, with smaller emission increases occurring in more recent years.

Figure 13: Top 10 Long-Term changes by NAICS Industry Subsector, 2005-2014
Figure 13
Long Description

Figure 13 is a bar chart showing the top 10 industries with the largest change in GHG emissions between 2005 and 2014. Seven sectors show a decrease in emissions: fossil fuel electric power generation (37 020 kt), other organic chemical manufacturing (3 604 kt), pipeline transportation of natural gas (3 511 kt), petroleum refineries (3 389 kt), cement manufacturing (3 069 kt), iron and steel mills and ferro-alloy manufacturing (2 969 kt), and primary production of aluminium (2 790 kt). Non-conventional oil extraction shows an increase in emissions of 32 894 kt, while water treatment and disposal and industrial gas manufacturing show increases of 1 999 kt and 1 718 kt, respectively.

Top 10 Long-Term changes by NAICS Industry Subsector, 2005-2014
NAICS IndustryChange in GHG Emissions (kt CO2 eq)
221112 - Fossil-Fuel Electric Power Generation-37 020
211114 - Non-Conventional Oil Extraction32 894
325190 - Other Organic Chemical Manufacturing-3 604
486210 - Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas-3 511
324110 - Petroleum Refineries-3 389
327310 - Cement Manufacturing-3 069
331110 - Iron and Steel Mills and ferro-alloy Manufacturing-2 969
331313 - Primary Production of Aluminium-2 790
562210 - Waste Treatment and Disposal1 999
325120 - Industrial Gas Manufacturing1 718

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4. Facility-Reported Emissions and the National GHG Inventory

The total facility-reported GHG emissions for 2014 collected under the GHGRP represent just over one third (36%) of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2014 (732 Mt) and over half (56%) of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions,Footnote 13 as reported in Canada’s latest National Inventory Report (NIR).Footnote 14 The GHGRP applies to the largest GHG-emitting facilities (mostly industrial) and does not cover other sources of GHG emissions (e.g. road transportation, agricultural sources), whereas the NIR is a complete accounting of all GHG sources and sinks in Canada.

When comparing the provincial and territorial contribution to the facility-reported total from the GHGRP with the national total from the NIR, the distribution of emissions by province shows a similar pattern (Figure 14). Alberta has the highest emissions, followed by Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan. This pattern of industrial emissions reflects the concentration of large industrial facilities in certain provinces relative to others and the use of fossil fuels for energy production.

Figure 14: Provincial/Territorial Contribution to 2014 Facility-Reported (GHGRP) Total and NIR Total
Figure 14
Long Description

Figure 14 is a column chart comparing the provincial/territorial distribution of the GHG emissions from the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report. The two distributions follow a similar pattern, with Alberta contributing the largest quantity of emissions by province, followed by Ontario.

Provincial/Territorial Contribution to 2014 Facility-Reported (GHGRP) Total and NIR Total
Province/TerritoryGHG Emissions (kt CO2 eq)
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting ProgramNational Inventory Report
NL4 80610 555
PE551 797
NS7 82916 579
NB7 54414 901
QC20 00882 681
ON43 017170 155
MB1 96121 480
SK23 93375 523
AB139 266273 754
BC14 75862 938
NT5761 531
NU180269

Although the facility-reported emissions may capture 56% of industrial GHG emissions nationally, the degree of coverage at the provincial level varies significantly from province to province (Figure 15), due to the size and number of industrial facilities in each province that have emissions above the 50-kt CO2 eq reporting threshold.

Figure 15: 2014 Facility-Reported Emissions as a Percentage of National and Provincial/Territorial Industrial GHG EmissionsFigure 15 Note a (from the NIR)
Figure 15
Long Description

Figure 15 is a column chart showing the percentages of industrial GHG emissions from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report accounted for by the facility-reported data from the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program. The degree of coverage at the national and provincial/territorial level is displayed and ranges from 14% in Prince Edward Island to 75% in New Brunswick, with the coverage of industrial emissions nationally at 56%. In this overview report, Canada’s industrial greenhouse gas emissions include emissions from the following categories from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990–2014: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.

2014 Facility-Reported Emissions as a Percentage of National and Provincial/Territorial Industrial GHG EmissionsFigure 15 Note a (from the NIR)
Province/TerritoryFacility Emissions Reported to GHGRP (kt CO2 eq)Percentage of Industrial GHG Emissions from NIR
NL4 80671%
PE5514%
NS7 82974%
NB7 54475%
QC20 00846%
ON43 01751%
MB1 96130%
SK23 93346%
AB139 26665%
BC14 75840%
YT, NT, NU75661%
NationalFigure 15 Note b263 93656%
  • Figure 15 Note a. In this overview report, Canada’s industrial GHG emissions include the following GHG categories from the National Inventory Report, Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada 1990–2014: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.
  • Figure 15 Note b. Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Where appropriate, the facility-reported emissions data are used by Environment and Climate Change Canada to confirm inventory estimates developed from national and provincial statistics in the NIR. The NIR is produced and submitted annually by Canada to the UNFCCC. The extent to which the facility-reported GHG emissions data could be fully integrated into the NIR is dependent on the level of detail and type of data available.

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5. Additional Information About the GHGRP

5.1 Data Quality

Facilities that meet the GHG reporting requirements under the GHGRP must ensure that the reported data are reliable. Facilities are required by law to submit information that is true, accurate and complete to the best of their knowledge. CEPA sets out penalties for companies that fail to report or that knowingly submit false or misleading information. Reporters have a legal obligation to keep copies of the information submitted, along with any calculations, measurements and other data on which the information is based. All information must be kept for a period of three years from the date on which it was required to be reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada.

The data provided in this report are for information purposes only. Environment and Climate Change Canada conducted a number of data quality checks of the submitted data for compliance purposes and for completeness, and it will continue to analyze the data, which may result in periodic updates.

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5.2 Public Access

The GHGRP provides public access to information from all facilities that reported GHG emissions to the program through an annual online publication. In addition to this summary report, the facility-level data are presented in the form of tables, a searchable database and a downloadable format. Users can search by emissions of a specific gas or emissions of all gases, by facility name or National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) identification number, by reporting company, by province/territory or city, or by industry sector, using the NAICSFootnote 6 code. Users can also access a Web-based mapping tool on the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators website, which shows where reporting facilities are located in Canada.

To access the data or obtain further information on the GHGRP or National Greenhouse Gas Inventory program, consult the following websites:

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The GHGRP is similar to, yet distinct from, the NPRI. Although both programs are delivered by Environment and Climate Change Canada under the authority of section 46 of CEPA, the NPRI collects data from facilities on pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling, whereas the GHGRP collects data from facilities on GHG emissions. Facilities reporting to the GHGRP are asked to report their NPRI identification number to facilitate searching and comparison of emissions from facilities that report to both programs.

A number of provincial jurisdictions also require facilities to report GHG emissions information annually under specific provincial regulations. Efforts have been undertaken to streamline the reporting process between the national and various provincial jurisdictions, resulting in the launch of a single-window reporting system to help reduce the reporting burden on industry and the overall cost to government. This single-window system allows one-time entry for information commonly required at both levels, while accommodating requirements that are jurisdiction-specific. Provinces currently using this reporting system include Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario. The province of New Brunswick will be collecting facility data via the single-window reporting system in 2016 (for 2015 data).

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6. Contact Us

If you have questions about this report or for more information about its content, please contact the GHGRP:

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program
Place Vincent Massey, 7th Floor
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3
 E-mail: ec.ges-ghg.ec@canada.ca (NEW)
 GHG Helpline: 1-819-938-3258
 Toll free: 1-877-877-8375
Fax: 1-819-938-5280
Website: Facility Greenhouse Gas Reporting

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