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Sky Watchers Teachers’ Guide

Curriculum

Alberta

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the Alberta Science Curriculum Topic D: Weather Watch Specific Curriculum Outcomes

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

  • Describe and demonstrate methods for measuring wind speed and for finding wind direction.
  • Measure at least four different kinds of weather phenomena. Either student-constructed or standard instruments may be used.

Predict

  • Predict where, within a given indoor or outdoor environment, one is likely to find the warmest and coolest temperatures.
  • Appreciate how important it is to be able to forecast weather and to have suitable clothing or shelter to endure various types of weather.

Reflect

  • 5-9 Investigate relationships between weather phenomena and human activity.
  • (General Learner Expectation, GLE)
  • Appreciate how important it is to be able to forecast weather and to have suitable clothing or shelter to endure various types of weather.
  • Test fabrics and clothing designs to choose those with characteristics that most effectively meet the challenges of particular weather conditions; e.g., water resistance, wind resistance, protection from cold.

Read with Understanding

Each section of the guide highlights different topics and curricular themes.

Alberta
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
  • 5-8 Observe, describe and interpret weather phenomena; and relate weather to the heating and cooling of the Earth’s surface. (GLE)
  • Describe the effects of the Sun’s energy on daily and seasonal changes in temperature-- 24-hour and yearly cycles of change.
  • Recognize that weather systems are generated because different surfaces on the face of Earth retain and release heat at different rates.
  • Describe evidence that air contains moisture and that dew and other forms of precipitation come from moisture in the air.
  • Identify some common types of clouds, and relate them to weather patterns.
  • Describe and measure different forms of precipitation, in particular, rain, hail, sleet, snow.
  • 5-8 Observe, describe and interpret weather phenomena; and relate weather to the heating and cooling of the Earth’s surface. (GLE)
  • Describe patterns of air movement, in indoor and outdoor environments, that result when one area is warm and another area is cool.

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British Columbia and Yukon

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the British Columbia Science Curriculum – Grade 4 Earth and Space Science The British Columbia program of studies forms the basis of the Yukon curriculum.
Prescribed Learning Outcomes

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

  • Measure weather in terms of temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, wind speed and direction
  • Weather conditions that can be observed and/or measured include temperature, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, air pressure and cloud formations
  • Observe weather conditions and record using graphs, tables and charts
  • Construct simple instruments

Predict

  • Interpret data from recorded observations
  • Predict weather conditions

Reflect

  • Analyse impacts of weather on living and non-living things
  • Weather conditions affect living things (e.g., growth, behaviour, food, shelter)
  • Weather conditions (e.g., erosion) affect non-living things

Read with Understanding

Vocabulary

Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, water cycle, cloud, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, erosion, barometer, anemometer, thermometer, rain gauge, weather vane

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

British Columbia and Yukon
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
  • The surface of the planet Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air called the atmosphere
  • The Earth’s surface is heated by energy from the Sun
  • Most of the Earth’s surface is covered by water and circulates through the water cycle
  • Most of the Earth’s surface is covered by water and circulates through the water cycle
_

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Manitoba

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the Manitoba Science Curriculum--Grade 5 Weather (Cluster 4)

Specific Learning Outcomes

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

  • 5-4-05 Use the design process to construct a weather instrument.
    Examples: an instrument that measures wind direction, wind speed, rainfall
    GLO: C3,D5
  • 5-4-06 Observe and measure local weather conditions over a period of time, using student-constructed or standard instruments, and record and analyze these data.
    GLO: A2,C2,C5,D5
  • 5-4-07 Identify and describe components of public weather reports from a variety of sources.
    Include: temperature; relative humidity; wind speed and direction; wind chill; barometric pressure; humidex; cloud cover; ultraviolet index; warm and cold fronts; amount, types, and probability of precipitation
    GLO: C6,D5
  • 5-4-08 Describe the key features of a variety of weather phenomena.
    Examples: wind speed and precipitation of blizzards
    GLO: D5,E1,E2

Predict

  • 5-4-10 Investigate various ways of predicting the weather, and evaluate their usefulness.
    Examples: weather-related sayings, traditional knowledge, folk knowledge, observations of the natural environment
    GLO: A2,A4,B2,C8
  • 5-4-12 Describe examples of technological advances that have enabled humans to deepen their scientific understanding of weather and improve the accuracy of weather predictions.
    Examples: satellites collect data that scientists analyze to increase understanding of global weather patterns; computerized models predict weather
    GLO: A2,A5,B1,D5

Reflect

  • 5-4-02 Describe how weather conditions may affect the activities of humans and other animals.
    Examples: heavy rainfall may cause roads to wash out; stormy conditions may prevent a space shuttle launching; in excessive heat, cattle may produce less milk
    GLO: D5
  • 5-4-09 Provide examples of severe weather forecasts, and describe preparations for ensuring personal safety during severe weather and related natural disasters.
    Examples: tornado, thunderstorm, blizzard, extreme wind chill, flood, forest fire
    GLO: B3, C1, D5

Read with Understanding

  • 5-4-01 Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations of weather.
    Include: weather; properties; volume; pressure; air masses; fronts; weather instrument; severe weather; forecast; accuracy; water cycle; climate; terms related to public weather reports and cloud formations
    GLO: C6,D5

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

Manitoba
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
  • 5-4-13 Explain how the transfer of energy from the Sun affects weather conditions.
  • Include: the Sun’s energy evaporates water and warms the Earth’s land, water and air on a daily basis

GLO: D4,D5,E4

5-4-13 Explain how the transfer of energy from the Sun affects weather conditions. Include: the Sun’s energy evaporates water and warms the Earth’s land, water and air on a daily basis GLO: D4,D5,E4 5-4-14 Explain how clouds form, and relate cloud formation and precipitation to the water cycle. GLO: D5,E2 5-4-15 Identify and describe common cloud formations. Include: cumulus, cirrus, stratus GLO: D5, E15-4-14 Explain how clouds form, and relate cloud formation and precipitation to the water cycle. GLO: D5,E25-4-03 Describe properties of air. Include: has mass/weight and volume; expands to fill a space; expands and rises when heated; contracts and sinks when cooled; exerts pressure; moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure GLO: D3 5-4-04 Recognize that warm and cold air masses are important components of weather, and describe what happens when these air masses meet along a front. Include: in a cold front the cold air mass slides under a warm air mass, pushing the warm air upwards; in a warm front the warm moist air slides up over a cold air mass GLO: D5, E2

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New Brunswick (Anglophone), Newfoundland, Labrador and Prince Edward Island

Correlation of Sky Watchers to Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Labrador and New Brunswick Science Curriculum – Grade 5 Earth and Space Science: Weather

Specific Learning Outcomes

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

  • identify and/or construct, and use instruments for measuring weather information (204-8, 205-4, 205-10)
  • use appropriate terminology in naming weather instruments and collecting weather data (104-7)
  • record observations using measuring instruments in order to describe weather in terms of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation and cloud cover (205-7, 300-13)
  • estimate weather measurements for various times of the day, week or for weather systems (205-6)
  • compile and display weather data collected over a period of time in table and/or graph format, and identify and suggest explanations for patterns or discrepancies in the data (206-2, 206-3)

Predict

  • identify and use weather-related folklore to predict weather (105-2)
  • use a variety of sources to gather information to describe the key features of a variety of weather systems (205-8, 302-11)
  • identify weather-related technological innovations and products that have been developed by various cultures in response to weather conditions (107-14)
  • ask different people in the community and region for advice on how to predict weather, and compare the tools and techniques they use to make predictions (107-2, 107-10, 207-4)
  • identify positive and negative effects of technologies that affect weather and the environment (108-1)

Reflect

  • identify and use appropriate tools, measuring instruments and materials to measure the temperature of soil and water after exposing them to light and draw conclusions (204-8,
    205-4, 206-5)
  • provide examples of ways that weather forecasts are used by various people in their community (107-5)

Read with Understanding

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

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New Brunswick (Anglophone), Newfoundland, Labrador and Prince Edward Island
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
  • Relate the transfer of energy from the sun to weather conditions (303-21)
  • Classify clouds as stratus, cumulus, cirrus, or “other”, compare results with others, and recognize that results may vary (104-4, 206-1)
  • Relate the constant circulation of water on Earth to the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
    (301-13)
  • Relate the constant circulation of water on Earth to the processes of evaporation, condensation and precipitation
    (301-13)
  • Describe situations demonstrating that air takes up space, has mass and expands when heated (300-14)
  • Identify patterns in indoor and outdoor air movement
    (302-10)

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New Brunswick (Francophone)

Correlation of Sky Watchers to New Brunswick Science Curriculum – Grades 3 to 5

Specific Learning Outcomes

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

N/A

Predict

The Earth

4.4 Identify the various features of a weather report (e.g., temperature, wind speed, precipitation, cloud cover)

Reflect

N/A

Read with Understanding

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

New Brunswick (Francophone)
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind

Matter and Energy

  • 4.12 Identify various natural sources of energy (sun, oil, coal, plants, food, nuclear, water, wind)
--

The Earth

  • 6.6 Understand that changes occur in various ways all the time (regular, repetitive or irregular); sometimes, change occurs in different ways at the same time
    (e.g., waves, tides, tsunami, wind, earthquakes)

Space

  • 5.11 Describe how air affects everything around us

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Nova Scotia

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the Nova Scotia Science Curriculum Draft – Grade 5 Earth and Space Science: Weather

Specific Learning Outcomes

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

  • Using correct names of weather instruments, construct and use instruments to record temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation (104-7, 204-8, 205-4, 205-10,
    205-7, 300-13)

Predict

  • Identify and use weather-related folklore to predict weather (105-2)
  • Using a variety of sources, gather information to describe the key features of weather systems and identify weather-related technological innovations and products that have been developed by cultures in response to weather conditions (107-14, 205-8, 302-11)

Reflect

  • Using a variety of sources, gather information to describe the key features of weather systems and identify weather-related technological innovations and products that have been developed by cultures in response to weather conditions (107-14, 205-8, 302-11)

Read with Understanding

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

Nova Scotia
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
  • Relate the transfer of energy from the sun to weather and discuss the sun’s impact on soil and water (206-5, 303-21)
  • Identify, classify and compare clouds  (104-4, 206-1)
  • Relate the constant circulation of water on Earth to the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation (301-13)
  • Relate the constant circulation of water on Earth to the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
  • (301-13)
  • Describe situations demonstrating that air takes up space, has mass and expands when heated (300-14)

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Nunavut

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the Nunavut Science Curriculum – Grade 6 Weather

Concepts, Processes, and Skills

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

1a) To keep records of weather.

1b) To observe the special weather situation during each season, e.g., snow and ice, flooding, drought, thunder storms.

2a) To observe the effects of the wind.

3. Wind speed can be measured by wind gauges.

3a) To make a wind gauge and measure the wind speed.

14b) To observe cloud formation.

15b) To construct and calibrate a rain gauge.

Predict

2b) To infer direction of air currents.

14c) To predict the weather based on cloud formations.

Reflect

N/A

Read with Understanding

1. Weather consists of interacting factors such as temperature, pressure, precipitation, humidity and wind.

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

Nunavut
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
-

4. Warm air rises and is replaced by cooler, heavier air.

5. Water evaporates into the air, and in the process, absorbs energy.

5a) To predict and demonstrate that water evaporating cools an object (absorbs energy).

9. Water vapour becomes liquid when it condenses.

12. Air contains varying amounts of water.

12a) To identify sources of water vapour.

13. Water vapour in the air can be measured (relative humidity).

13a) To explain how relative humidity is measured.

14. Clouds form when moisture-laden air rises.

14a) To demonstrate cloud formation.

15. Rain forms when clouds are cooled.

15a) To prepare a model to simulate cloud formation and rainfall.

2. Wind is caused by the movement of air masses.

4. Warm air rises and is replaced by cooler, heavier air.

4a) To infer that warm air rises because, in warming, it expands and takes up more space.

4b) To hypothesize that air expands when warmed.

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Ontario

Ontario Ministry of Education removed weather from its late elementary curriculum effective September 2008.

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Quebec

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the Quebec Science and Technology Curriculum

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

Build on tools, objects and procedures used in science and technology

Earth and Space: Techniques and Instrumentation

– Design/construction of measurement instruments and prototypes

– Use of simple measurement instruments (e.g., rulers, scale, thermometer, weather vane, barometer, wind gauge, hygrometer)

Predict

Earth and Space: Systems and Interaction

– Earth, atmospheric and space technologies (e.g., seismograph, prospecting, weather forecasting, satellites, space station)

Reflect

Propose explanations or solutions to scientific problems

Read with Understanding

Overall

Communicate using appropriate scientific and technical terminology

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

Quebec
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind

Earth and Space: Systems and Interaction

  • Seasons
    (Cycle 3 only)

Earth and Space: Energy

  • Energy sources: solar energy
  • Energy transmission (e.g., radiation

Earth and Space: Force and Movement

  • The Earth's rotation (e.g., day and night, apparent movement of Sun and stars)

Earth and Space: Matter

  • Natural phenomena (e.g., erosion, thunder)

Earth and Space: Systems and Interaction

  • Weather systems (e.g., clouds, precipitation, storms and climates)

Earth and Space: Matter

  • Natural phenomena
    (e.g., erosion, thunder)

Earth and Space: Systems and Interaction

  • Weather systems (e.g., clouds, precipitation, storms and climates)

Earth and Space: Systems and Interaction

  • Weather systems
    (e.g., clouds, precipitation, storms and climates)

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Saskatchewan

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the Saskatchewan Science Curriculum – Grade 4 Predicting Weather

Science Foundational and Learning Objectives

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

  • Observe and describe weather conditions.
    1.3. Identify instruments used to measure weather conditions.
    1.4. Construct instruments to measure weather conditions.
    1.5. Record measurements made with weather instruments.

Predict

  • Predict weather patterns.
    2.3. Interpret recorded data.
    2.4. Predict weather based on a number of different indicators.

Reflect

  • Appreciate the importance of weather.
    3.1. Suggest some reasons why people rely on accurate weather information.
    3.2. Explain the importance of good weather to agriculture.
    3.3. Identify some hazards associated with bad weather.
    3.4. Describe some ways in which the weather affects human activity.
    3.5. Describe some ways in which the weather affects other living things.

Read with Understanding

Each section of the guide highlights different topics and curricular themes.

Saskatchewan
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
-
  • 1.2. Forecast weather based on cloud patterns.
-
  • 1.1. Discover how weather systems develop.

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Northwest Territories

Correlation of Sky Watchers to the Northwest Territories Science and Technology Curriculum – Grade 5 Earth and Space Systems

Specific Learning Outcomes

Processes

Each section of the newly adapted guide includes observing, predicting and reflection. These processes are important in Canadian provincial and territorial curricula.

Observe

  • Design, construct and test a variety of weather instruments (e.g., weather vane, anemometer, rain gauge, wind sock, hydrometer);
  • Compile data gathered through investigation in order to record and present results, tally charts, tables, and labeled graphs produced by hand or with a computer (e.g., record both qualitative and quantitative data from observations of weather over a period of time; accurately use a thermometer to read and record the results);

Predict

  • Predict local weather patterns using data from their own observations of weather and from weather reports;
  • Explain how advances in technology and science enable humans to make predictions about weather (e.g., satellite images of the Earth allow us to track weather patterns on a larger scale; computer modelling and automated weather stations);
  • Understand and explain the importance of weather forecasting for people in certain occupations (e.g., fishers, hunters, farmers, pilots);

Reflect

  • Formulate questions about and identify needs and problems related to objects and events in the environment, and explore possible answers and solutions (e.g., test a variety of fabrics for their waterproofing or insulating properties)
  • Plan investigations for some of these answers and solutions, identifying variables that need to be held constant to ensure a fair test and identifying criteria for assessing solutions
  • Communicate the procedures and results of investigations for specific purposes and to specific audiences, using electronic media, oral presentations, written notes and descriptions, drawings, and charts (e.g., draw a labelled diagram of the water cycle)
  • Describe ways in which weather conditions affect the activities of humans and other animals (e.g., people refrain from strenuous physical activity in extreme heat; animals hibernate in extreme cold; animal fur thickens with cold weather);
  • Explain how climatic and weather conditions influence the choice of materials used for building shelters (e.g., wood/bricks are often used for building in cold climates, stone and marble in warmer climates).

Read with Understanding

Vocabulary

Use appropriate vocabulary, including correct science and technology terminology, in describing their investigations and observations (e.g., use terms such as temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind chill factor, barometric pressure and cloud cover).

Each section of the guide also highlights different topics and curricular themes.

Northwest Territories
1. Energy2. Water Vapour3. Precipitation4. Wind
  • Describe the ways in which energy from the sun affects weather conditions
    (e.g., evaporation of water results in condensation, which in turn results in precipitation)
  • Explain the formation of clouds and the effects of different cloud formations on weather and climate
  • Describe the water cycle in terms of evaporation, condensation and precipitation
  • Describe the ways in which energy from the sun affects weather conditions
    (e.g., evaporation of water results in condensation, which in turn results in precipitation)
  • Identify and describe the major cloud types/formations
  • Describe the water cycle in terms of evaporation, condensation and precipitation
  • Describe the ways in which energy from the sun affects weather conditions
    (e.g., evaporation of water results in condensation, which in turn results in precipitation)
  • Recognize large-scale and local weather systems
    (e.g., fronts, air masses, storms)
  • Identify patterns in air movement
    (e.g., low pressure and high pressure)
  • Identify the effects of air pressure
    (e.g., low pressure air masses are associated with mild temperature and create conditions that cause thunderstorms or clouds; high pressure air masses are cooler and are often associated with clear weather conditions)
  • Recognize how the movement of large- scale air masses affects regional weather in the NWT
    (e.g., Arctic high pressure systems are associated with clear and cold weather; Atlantic systems are associated with cloudy skies; Pacific systems are associated with a wide variety of weather conditions)
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