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Technical Assessment of Environmental Performance and Emission Reduction Options for the Base Metals Smelters Sector - Final Report


  1. Cheminfo Services Inc., 1997, Inventory of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Activities in Canada, For the National Air Issues Co-ordinating Committee - NAICC.
  2. Cheminfo Services Inc., 2000, Analysis of the Impacts of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the Global Competitiveness of Ontario's Minerals and Metals Industry, For Ontario Northern Development and Mines.
  3. Cheminfo Services Inc., 2001, Ontario Industrial Sub-sector Profiles with Multiple Pollutant Emissions: Including Base Metals Smelting and Refining, For Ontario Ministry of Environment.
  4. Cheminfo Services Inc., 2000, Minerals and Metals Climate Change Strategy Paper, For Natural Resources Canada.
  5. Cheminfo Services Inc., 2000, Review of Climate Change Option Papers of the National Climate Change Process - Industry Issue Table Sub-Working Group on Minerals and Metals, Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade.
  6. Cheminfo Services Inc., 2002, Technical Evaluation of Options for Air Pollution Source Control in Selected Industrial Sectors, Including Base Metals Smelting and Refining, For Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
  7. Cheminfo Services Inc., 2003, Evaluation of Canadian Air Emission Requirements and Environmental Performance in Selected Industrial Sectors and a Comparison with the United States (Base Metals Smelting and Refining Sector), prepared for Environment Canada.
  8. Environment Canada, September 2002, Pollutant Emission Reduction Analysis Foundation (MERAF) for the Base Metals Smelting Sector.
  9. Environment Canada, 1994-2004, National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI).
  10. Environment Canada, June 23, 1997, Strategic Options for the Management of Toxic Substances from the Base Metals Smelting Sector.
  11. Environment Canada/Health Canada, January 2001, An Environmental Code of Practice for the Canadian Base Metal Smelters and Refineries, Draft for consultation.
  12. European Commission, May 2000, Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC): Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Non-Ferrous Metals Industries, Seville, Spain.
  13. Falconbridge Ltd., 1999, Energy Intensity Improvement and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Action Plan - 1998 Results (VCR Action Plan Progress Report).
  14. Falconbridge Ltd., 1999, Sustainable Development Report
  15. Natural Resources Canada, 2003 Canadian Minerals Yearbook  - Nickel, p. 38.6.
  16. Falconbridge website.
  17. Government of Canada, 2004, Canada Gazette, Part I, Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans in Respect of Specified Toxic Substances Released from Base Metals Smelters and Refineries and Zinc Plants, Volume 138m No. 39.
  18. Hatch Associates Ltd., Nov. 2000 Review of Environmental Management Practices for the Base Metals Smelting Sector, prepared for Environment Canada.
  19. Hatch Associates Ltd., Feb. 2003, Update of Environmental Management Practices for the Base Metals Smelting Sector for Base Metals Smelters Environmental Management Survey, prepared for Environment Canada.
  20. Hatch Associates Ltd., May 1995, Falconbridge Ltd.: SO2 Removal From Acid Plant Tail Gas.
  21. Hatch Associates Ltd., December 2001, Implementation Scenario for Proposed Emissions Standards for Particulate Matter and Sulphur Dioxide for the Base Metals Smelting Sector, prepared for Environment Canada.
  22. Hatch Associates Ltd., November 2000, Review of Environmental Releases for the Base Metals Smelting Sector, prepared for Environment Canada.
  23. HudBay Minerals, Inc., 2004 Annual Report.
  24. Inco Ltd., 1999, Action Plan for Reducing GHG Emissions (“1998 Performance Scenario” - pg. 29), prepared by Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd.
  25. Jacques Whitford, 2004, Costs and Multi-pollutant Emissions Associated With Process Technologies in the Canadian Base Metals Smelting Sector, prepared for Environment Canada.
  26. Natural Resources Canada, 1996 Canadian Minerals Yearbook, Review and Outlook.
  27. Natural Resources Canada,1998, 2000, 2002 Canadian Minerals Yearbook– Nickel.
  28. Natural Resources Canada, 2002 Canadian Minerals Yearbook - Copper, p. 22.11.
  29. Natural Resources Canada, 1996, Canadian Minerals Yearbook, Lead Profile.
  30. Noranda web site.
  31. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, September 7, 2001, Environment Ministry Taking Strong Action to Reduce Sulphur Dioxide In Sudbury Air And Acid Rain In Ontario.
  32. Pentasul Inc., Feb. 2002, Byproduct Sulphuric Acid at Smelters in Manitoba from 2007, Marketing and Disposal Options with Associated Costs, (prepared for Chemtrade Logisitics Inc.).
  33. Perry & Chilton, 1976, Chemical Engineering Handbook.
  34. Phelps Dodge, History of the Copper Smelter SO2 Emissions in the Western United States, not dated.
  35. Statistics Canada (CANSIM II), 2000-2004, Quarterly Material & Equipment Price Index, Industry of Purchase - Primary Metals, Table 327-0016.
  36. Stratus Consulting Inc, (2000), Source-Receptor Relationships for Ozone Formation in the Great Lakes Region of Canada and the United States: An Application of the Regional Economic Model for the Air Quality (REMAQ) to Transboundary Pollution, prepared for Environment Canada, Ontario Power Generation Inc., Hydro Quebec.
  37. Sudbury Soils Study, News Release, January 20, 2005.
  38. The Mining Association of Canada, 2002, Environmental Progress Report.
  39. U.S. EPA, September 1995, EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project: Profile of the Non-ferrous Metals Industry,Washington, DC.
  40. US Environmental Protection Agency, January 1995, AP 42, Fifth Edition, "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources."
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