Vancouver Fraser Port Authority

1. Name and address of proponent:

Vancouver Fraser Port Authority
100 The Pointe
999 Canada Place
Vancouver, BC., V6C 3T4
Phone: 604-665-9000
Fax: 1-866-284-4271
Email: Vancouver Fraser Port Authority

2. Contact name for technical and design information:

Cliff Steward, P.Eng.
Vice-President, Infrastructure
Phone: 604-665-9219
Fax: 1-866-284-4271
Email: Cliff Stewart, Vancouver Fraser Port Authority

3. Description of the proposed project (major products, process, capacity, etc.):

The Vancouver Fraser Port Authority (VFPA) proposes to build a new three-berth container terminal located at Roberts Bank in Delta, British Columbia (B.C.), approximately 35 kilometres (22 miles) south of Vancouver, B.C. The proposed Roberts Bank Terminal 2 Project (referred to as RBT2 or the Project) will provide for an additional 2.4 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) of container capacity per year to meet growing demand to 2030 in support of Canada’s import and export markets. Within VFPA’s jurisdiction, Project construction (proposed from mid-2018 to 2023) will involve the development of land at the seaward end of the existing Roberts Bank causeway (adjacent to the existing Deltaport and Westshore terminals), widening of the existing causeway, and expansion of the existing tug basin. Project operation within VFPA jurisdiction will involve four main activities including container ship maneuvres, marine terminal operation, railway procedures, and drayage by trucks. By 2030, the terminal is expected to be at full capacity and receive 260 container ship calls (520 ship movements) annually.

For the air quality assessment, air quality related to Project operation was predicted and characterized for the year 2025, which represents the greatest potential change in annual predicted emissions associated with the Project. Project-related emissions from fuel combustion sources were modelled, and compared to modelled existing conditions (2010) and future expected conditions without the Project (also 2025). Hypothetical maximum emission scenarios were used to conservatively estimate existing conditions and potential changes from the Project. In general, air quality is expected to improve in the future, with or without the Project, as a result of improvements in engine technologies and the use of cleaner fuels.

The air quality assessment also considered marine shipping activity within the international shipping lanes utilized by container vessels associated with the Project, south of VFPA jurisdiction to the 12 nautical mile limit of the Canadian territorial sea at the west end of Juan de Fuca Strait (area is referred to as the marine shipping area).

4. Latitude and longitude coordinates, city/town, county and province.

The Roberts Bank Terminal 2 Project will be located at Roberts Bank in Delta, British Columbia (B.C.). The center of the Project’s marine terminal will be located approximately 5.5 km offshore at 49°1′6.567″ N, 123°11′4.38" W.

Marine vessels that call on RBT2 transit the marine shipping area from approximately 49°0’6.1" N, 123°12’12.7" W at the southern limit of VFPA jurisdiction southward to 48°29’37" N 125°00’00" W to the 12 nautical mile limit of Canada’s territorial sea.

5. Distance to the Canada-U.S. border:

Approximately 1.3 km (0.8 miles) from RBT2 terminal wharf to U.S.A. border; variable distances to the Canada-U.S. border along the international shipping lanes within the marine shipping area as the lanes are within Canadian and U.S. waters.

6. Estimated annual quantities of the following pollutants released to the atmosphere (tonnes/ year).

Estimated annual quantities of pollutants released to the atmosphere (tonnes/year)
PollutantSource
RBT2 Terminal Operations
(t/yr)
Source
With Marine Shipping Area from RBT2-associated vessels
(t/yr)
SO222.785
PM17.760
VOC54.3117
CO422.9278
NOx303.12910

7. List hazardous air pollutants with emissions estimate (tonnes/year) for any hazardous air pollutants with expected annual emission rates of greater than 1 tonne per year.

Not applicable for RBT2 terminal construction or operations; 2.3 tonnes/year formaldehyde within marine shipping area from RBT2-associated container vessels

8. For combustion processes, list capacity (tonnes/year), fuel type and grade:

Capacity: N/A, as only combustion processes are related to the transportation of containers
Fuel Type: N/A
Fuel Grade: N/A

9. Description of emissions control equipment to be used to minimize emissions of air contaminants/pollutants, if available.

For container ships at Roberts Bank Terminal 2, shore power will be available so that ships that are equipped to connect to shore power facilities will be able to turn off their auxiliary engines. The maximum benefit of the three berths at Roberts Bank Terminal 2 fully utilizing the available shore power could reduce predicted future emissions of the contaminants of potential concern from ships at berth by up to 10% to 97%. (Note:While the potential benefits of shore power have been estimated by VFPA for reductions in total annual emissions, a conservative approach was taken and the potential benefits with respect to hypothetical maximum potential hourly or daily emissions have not been incorporated into the air quality effects assessment).

To reduce or minimize air contaminant emissions, measures that may be undertaken include the following (amongst others):

  • Regular inspection and maintenance of vehicles and equipment;
  • Avoidance of creating traffic congestion;
  • Restrictions on vehicle idling; and
  • Preferential use of low-sulphur fuels.

To reduce and control fugitive dust emissions, measures that may be undertaken include the following (amongst others):

  • Installation of a wheel washer or regular sweeping of paved surfaces to minimize trackout of mud and dirt from unpaved to paved areas;
  • Use of water spray to suppress dust on unpaved surfaces and open storage areas (in conjunction with measures to avoid the over-application of water);
  • Covering of haul vehicles during transport of bulk fine materials;
  • Stabilization of exposed earthworks; and
  • Timing activities to avoid high-wind events to minimize dust generation and dispersal.

Future emissions from marine vessels will be reduced relative to 2010 emissions, as the North American Emission Control Area regulations on sulphur content of marine fuels and NOxemission controls on new marine engines will apply.

10. Description of potential transboundary environmental effects on air quality, if available.

Project-related emission sources are primarily associated with fugitive dust during the construction phase and fuel combustion in both the construction and operation phases, (i.e., from diesel-fuelled engines, with smaller emissions related to propane-fuelled cargo handling equipment, and gasoline-fuelled vehicles). The incremental changes in air quality at two locations in Point Roberts, U.S.A. (see R10 and R11 in Figure 1 below) due to Project operation were calculated for terminal activity using dispersion modelling.

Figure 1. Discrete Receptor Locations within Local Study Area including Point Roberts, U.S.

Map of the planned project's location

This is a map of the planned project's location which is situated to the west side of the existing shipping terminal.

The map also shows the location of the two discrete receptor points in Point Roberts in a southeastern direction. Both receptor points, Point Roberts #1 (R10) and #2 (R11), are located in the United States at a distance of approximately 8 to 10 kilometers from the Project site at Roberts Bank in Delta, B.C.

Table 1 summarizes the maximum predicted differences (100th percentile) in ambient concentrations for these two transboundary reference points. To account for uncertainty in emissions estimation and ensure a conservative assessment, maximum emission scenarios were used to estimate the potential changes from Project-related activities. The assessment of incremental changes in air quality in the future with the Project (in 2025, which represents the greatest potential change in annual predicted emissions associated with the Project) included the following emission sources: marine vessels calling at RBT2 (inclusive of associated tug activities), cargo handling equipment, rail locomotives and on-road vehicles arriving at and departing from the terminal, and switcher locomotives operating at the terminal.

Table 1: Maximum Predicted Incremental Changes in Ambient Air Concentrations at R10 and R11 in Point Roberts, U.S.

ContaminantAveraging PeriodMaximum Predicted
Incremental Change in
Ambient Air
Concentration
(µg/m³)
Point Roberts 1 (R10)
Maximum Predicted
Incremental Change in
Ambient Air
Concentration
(µg/m³)
Point Roberts 2 (R11)
CO1-hour2055
CO8-hour rolling712
NO21-hour3955
NO224-hour36
NO2Annual0.20.6
SO21-hour2.15.5
SO224-hour rolling0.20.6
SO2Annual0.020.04
Formaldehyde1-hour0.30.8
PM24-hour0.20.4
PMAnnual0.020.04
PM1024-hour rolling0.20.4
PM10Annual0.020.04
PM2.524-hour rolling0.20.3
PM2.5Annual0.010.03

For container vessels within the marine shipping area, changes in ambient air quality for criteria pollutants were estimated in areas located within 10 km (6.2 miles) from the shipping routes in Segments A to D, as shown in Figure 2. The assessment of changes in air quality with (w) and without (w/o) shipping activity associated with the Project were estimated using semi-quantitative methods that relied on:

  • Published observations of the contribution of ship emissions to air quality at several points within the marine shipping area; and
  • Estimates of the relative changes to air quality from Project-associated container vessels, as a proportion of overall large marine vessel emissions along the marine shipping route.

The assessment of short-term, 1-hour average concentrations of air contaminants due to ship traffic used observed concentrations of NO2 and SO2 on Saturna Island as determined by McLaren et al. (2012), coupled with dilution-with-distance curves obtained from dispersion modelling of ship emissions in the Strait of Georgia to estimate concentrations of these two contaminants over 10-km distances from shipping lanes. Short-term concentrations of other contaminants were determined in proportion to relative differences in emission factors between these contaminants and SO2 emission rates. Longer-term, 24-hour and annual average ambient concentrations of contaminants were determined from 24-hour average and annual average concentrations of SO2 as measured at Saturna Island. Two key assumptions for the assessment were that:

  1. Most of the SO2 measured at Saturna Island prior to the establishment of the North American Emission Control Area were related to ship emissions from larger marine vessels; and
  2. The concentrations of other contaminants emitted by ships are relatively proportional to SO2 emission rates.

Figure 2. Marine Shipping Area, Route Segments and Shipping Lanes

Map of marine shipping area.

This is a map showing the marine shipping area, route segments and the shipping lanes.

This is a map showing the marine shipping area, route segments and the shipping lanes between the Roberts Bank Terminal and port in the United States and the Pacific Ocean.

Notes:

  1. Segment A is an area of approximately 15 km by 30 km south of RBT2
  2. Segment B extends from the southern border of Segment A to the southern-most point of Vancouver Island
  3. Segment C is an area of approximately 20 km by 20 km south of Segment B. The western-most border is in line with the southern-most point of Vancouver Island and Segment C extends eastward from that point.
  4. Segment D extends along the Juan de Fuca Strait from the western border of Segment C to the 12 nautical mile limit of Canada's territorial sea.

The following figures present estimated concentrations for 1-hour average NO2 and SO2 concentrations, and 24-hour average NO2, SO2 and PM2.5concentrations for marine vessels travelling in marine shipping area Segments A to D under cumulative conditions, respectively, both with (w - solid line) and without (w/o - dashed line) Project-associated vessels in 2030. The term ‘cumulative conditions’ refers to the combined emissions from all large marine vessels within a segment. The difference between the solid and dashed lines for each segment represents the estimated incremental contribution from Project-associated vessels within that segment.

Figure 3. Estimated Maximum 1-hour average NO2 Concentrations with Distance from the Shipping Route under Cumulative Conditions

Graph of nitrogen dioxide 1-hour concentration versus distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows the relationship between the estimated maximum 1-hour average nitrogen dioxide concentrations and the distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows a gradual decrease in estimated maximum 1-hour average nitrogen dioxide concentrations as the distance from the shipping route increases. The graph presents pollutant concentrations within segments A, B, C and D. The maximum nitrogen dioxide concentrations range from 66.1 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 1 kilometre in Segment D to 27.9 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 10 kilometres in Segment C.

Notes:

  1. The B.C. Ministry of Environment (MOE) interim objective and the U.S. EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hr NO2 is 188 µg/m³ (100 ppb), as the 98thpercentile averaged over one year in B.C. and over three consecutive years in the U.S.
  2. (w) indicates estimated concentrations under cumulative conditions, including the contribution from Project-associated vessels: (w/o) indicates estimated concentrations under cumulative conditions without the contribution from Project-associated vessels.
  3. The red lines reflect estimated concentrations from Segment A; the blue lines reflect estimated concentrations from Segment B; the green lines represent estimated concentrations form Segment C; and the purple lines reflect estimated concentrations from Segment D
  4. The solid lines indicate estimated concentrations under cumulative conditions, including contributions from shipping activity associated with the Project-associated vessels
  5. The dotted lines indicate estimated concentrations under cumulative conditions without contributions from shipping activity associated with the Project-associated vessels.
  6. The difference between the solid and dotted lines represents the contribution of emissions from Project-associated vessels within that segment.
  7. x-axis: Distance from shipping route (km)
  8. y-axis: Concentration (µg/m³)

Figure 4. Estimated Maximum 1-hour average SO2 Concentrations with Distance from Shipping Route under Cumulative Conditions

Graph of sulphur dioxide 1-hour concentration versus distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows the relationship between the estimated maximum 1-hour average sulphur dioxide concentrations and the distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows a gradual decrease in estimated maximum 1-hour average sulphur dioxide concentrations as the distance from the shipping route increases. The graph presents pollutant concentrations within segments A, B, C and D. The maximum sulphur dioxide concentrations range from 3.6 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 1 kilometre in Segment D to 1.08 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 10 kilometres in Segment A.

Notes:

  1. The B.C. MOE interim objective and the U.S. EPA NAAQS for 1-hr SO2 is 196 µg/m³ (75 ppb) as the 99thpercentile averaged over one year in B.C. and over three consecutive years in the U.S.
  2. See Notes 2 to 8 under Figure 3 for legend description.

Figure 5. Estimated Maximum 24-hr average NO2Concentrations with Distance from the Shipping Route under Cumulative Conditions

Graph of nitrogen dioxide 24-hour concentration versus distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows the relationship between the estimated maximum 24-hour average nitrogen dioxide concentrations and the distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows a gradual decrease in estimated maximum 24-hour average nitrogen dioxide concentrations as the distance from the shipping route increases. The graph presents pollutant concentrations within segments A, B, C and D. The maximum nitrogen dioxide concentrations range from 15.6 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 1 kilometre in Segment D to 5.0 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 10 kilometres in Segment C.

Notes:

  1. The Maximum Acceptable Level National Ambient Air Quality Objective (NAAQO), adopted by B.C., for 24-hr NO2 is 200 µg/m³. The U.S. EPA has not established a 24-hr NO2NAAQS.
  2. See Notes 2 to 8 under Figure 3 for legend description

Figure 6. Estimated Maximum 24-hr average SO2Concentrations with Distance from the Shipping Route under Cumulative Conditions

Graph of sulphur dioxide 24-hour concentration versus distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows the relationship between the estimated maximum 24-hour average sulphur dioxide concentrations and the distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows a gradual decrease in estimated maximum 24-hour average sulphur dioxide concentrations as the distance from the shipping route increases. The graph presents pollutant concentrations within segments A, B, C and D. The maximum sulphur dioxide concentrations range from 0.47 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 1 kilometre in Segment D to 0.147 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 10 kilometres in Segment A.

Notes:

  1. The B.C. MOE Level A AAQO for 24-hr SO2 is 160 µg/m³. The U.S. EPA has not established a 24-hr SO2NAAQS.
  2. See Notes 2 to 8 under Figure 3 for legend description.

Figure 7. Estimated Maximum 24-hr average PM2.5 Concentrations with Distance from the Shipping Route under Cumulative Conditions

Graph of fine particulate matter 24-hour concentration versus distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows the relationship between the estimated maximum 24-hour average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and the distance from the shipping route.

This graph shows a gradual decrease in estimated maximum 24-hour average fine particulate matter concentrations as the distance from the shipping route increases. The graph presents pollutant concentrations within segments A, B, C and D. The maximum fine particulate matter concentrations range from 0.33 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 1 kilometre in Segement A to 0.108 micrograms per cubic metre at a distance of 10 kilometres in Segment C.

Notes:

  1. The B.C. MOE AAQO for 24-hr PM2.5 is 25 µg/m³ and the U.S. EPA NAAQS is 35 µg/m³ as the 98th percentile averaged over 3 consecutive years.
  2. See Notes 2 to 8 under Figure 3 for legend description.

11. Details on the environmental assessment process including deadline date for submitting written comments on the environmental assessment process and date for public meetings, if available.

Information on the environmental assessment process can be found at:

Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency

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