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Rationale for the Development of a List of Regulated Substances Under CEPA Section 200 and their Threshold Quantities

2. CRAIM List of Hazardous Substances

The CRAIM List contains: 63 flammables (RMP), 77 toxics (RMP), 10 flammables (MIACC - OSHA or NFPA 325), 201 toxic (MIACC - OSHA or NFPA 325), 3 explosives and 1 miscellaneous substance for a total of 174 substances. It was designed to take into account the list of hazardous substances from the EPA Risk Management Program (RMP) while retaining the most hazardous substances from MIACC List 2 in accordance with the following logic:

  • MIACC List 1, Priority Hazardous Substances.

  • RMP lists of toxic and flammable substances with their threshold quantities.2

  • Hazardous substances from MIACC Lists 2 and 3 when they are listed in the RMP list or in the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulation on Process Safety Management (1910.119)3 or in the list of substances under the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 325 Fire Hazards Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids when the substances are classified as '4', either for health, fire or reactivity4. See Table 1 for definition of the classification NFPA '4'. The complete definitions of health, fire and instability (reactivity) hazards are presented in Appendix A.

  • The threshold quantities that were retained are, in order of preference, those regulated under RMP or if not available those of OSHA 1910.119 or MIACC List 2.

The process followed is illustrated in Figure 1, development of the CRAIM list.

Table 1 - Definition of Health, Fire and Instability Hazards Under NFPA Level 4
Health HazardsFire HazardsInstability Hazards

Materials that, under emergency conditions, can be lethal. The following criteria shall be considered when rating materials:

  • Gases whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is less than or equal to 1,000 parts per million (ppm);
  • Any liquid whose saturated vapor concentration at 68°F (20°C) is equal to or greater than ten times its LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity, if its LC50 is less than or equal to 1,000 parts per million (ppm);
  • Dusts and mists whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is less than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L);
  • Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is less than or equal to 40 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg);
  • Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is less than or equal to 5 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg).

Materials that will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature or that are readily dispersed in air, and which will burn readily. This includes:

  • Flammable gases;
  • Flammable cryogenic materials;
  • Any liquid or gaseous material that is liquid while under pressure and has a flash point below 73°F (22.8°C) and a boiling point below 100°F (37.8°C) (i.e., Class IA liquids);
  • Materials that ignite spontaneously when exposed to air.
Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This includes materials that are sensitive to localized thermal or mechanical shock at normal temperatures and pressures. Materials that have an instantaneous power density (product of heat of reaction and reaction rate) at 482°F (250°C) of 1,000 W/mL or greater.

  • 1 CRAIM Guide lists 21 toxic substances from MIACC Lists, however one substance is duplicated under a synonym. Therefore the list was reduced to 20 toxic substances.
  • 2 List of Regulated Toxic and Flammable Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release prevention, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Register, vol. 59, no 20, 19 January 1993, pp. 4493-4499, Washington, DC.
  • 3 List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. Toxics and Reactives, Federal Register, vol. 57, no 36, 24 February 1992, Washington, DC.
  • 4 NFPA 325, Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids, National Fire Protection Association, August 1994, Quincy, MA, U.S.A.
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