Canada-Ontario Agreement on Great Lakes Water Quality and Ecosystem Health, 2014
- Priority - Protecting Waters
- Annex 1: Nutrients
- Annex 2: Harmful Pollutants
- Annex 3: Discharges from Vessels
- Priority – Improving Wetlands, Beaches and Coastal Areas
- Annex 4: Areas of Concern
- Annex 5: Lakewide Management
- Priority – Protecting Habitat and Species
- Annex 6: Aquatic Invasive Species
- Annex 7: Habitat and Species
- Priority – Enhancing Understanding and Adaptation
- Annex 8: Groundwater Quality
- Annex 9: Climate Change Impacts
- Annex 10: Science
- Priority – Promoting Innovation and Engaging Communities
- Annex 11: Promoting Innovation
- Annex 12: Engaging Communities
- Annex 13: Engaging First Nations
- Annex 14: Engaging Métis
ANNEX 8: GROUNDWATER QUALITY
The purpose of this Annex is to gain a better understanding of how groundwater influences Great Lakes water quality and ecosystem health, and to identify priority areas for future action.
Groundwater may represent as much as 50 percent of the water entering the Great Lakes, either directly (via groundwater discharge along the coasts) or indirectly (via discharge into rivers and streams that then discharge into the lakes). Groundwater-based contaminants and excessive nutrients can impair the quality of the waters of the Great Lakes, particularly the nearshore region, with potential effects on aquatic species and recreational waters.
Because groundwater is a potential source of contaminants and excessive nutrients and a pathway for transfer to the Great Lakes, groundwater quality is linked to the successful delivery of key commitments in other Annexes, including Areas of Concern, Lakewide Management, Harmful Pollutants, Nutrients, and Habitat and Species.
Some areas near the Great Lakes are known to have contaminated groundwater. In some cases, initiatives are underway to direct management and/or implement remediation actions in these locations. They include provincial contaminated site remediation efforts such as the Deloro Mine Site, and some of the work done through the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan, and the federal remediation of the Port Hope Area. These actions will protect or improve the water quality of the Great Lakes.
This Annex includes commitments to develop a binational state of Groundwater Science Report, create an interagency groundwater issues team, identify priorities for future research, and identify priority areas and sites for monitoring, management or remediation actions to address groundwater impacts and stressors.
Goal 1: Enhance understanding of groundwater to support the identification and assessment of groundwater impacts and stressors on Great Lakes water quality and ecosystem health and, in turn, support current and future management actions and decisions.
Result 1.1 – A binational Groundwater Science Report, based on collecting and compiling groundwater science findings, is developed and made available.
Canada will lead, with Ontario’s support:
- (a) Development, in cooperation with the United States, of a binational state of Groundwater Science Report in 2015 synthesizing relevant and available groundwater science.
Result 1.2 – Identification of priorities for groundwater science.
Canada and Ontario will:
- (a) Assemble technical and scientific expertise to:
- Assess the state of groundwater science as it pertains to implications for Great Lakes water quality and ecosystem health; and
- Identify groundwater science priorities and information gaps.
Goal 2: Identify opportunities for future actions to minimize groundwater impacts and stressors on Great Lakes water quality and ecosystem health.
Result 2.1 – Identification of priority areas and sites for the development of monitoring, management or remediation actions to address groundwater impacts and stressors on Great Lakes water quality and ecosystem health.
Canada and Ontario will:
- (a) Facilitate the coordination, sharing and exchange of information to identify priority sites or areas using, but not limited to, existing and available inventories, where point sources may impact water quality and ecosystem health of the Great Lakes; and
- (b) Identify priority sites or areas where point sources may impact the water quality and ecosystem health of the Great Lakes, including nearshore areas.
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